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Results and Discussions

This sections answers the

question: What did you find
out? It is about the presentation
and analysis of data gathered
during the study
Presentation of Data
Whenever possible, tabulate the data
(i.e., measurements and observations).
Report only relevant data. Raw data
need not be reported in the text;; if they
have to be included in the report, they
may be placed in the appendix.
Summarize the results and analysis
through tables, graphs and/or diagrams
Presentation of Data
Avoid too many tables of closely
related data which can be put
together in one table for more
comprehensive picture of the
Avoid tables with data that can
be presented in a few sentences
in the text
Analysis of data
Discuss each table, graph or diagram
presented. Do not expect the reader to
be able to draw out all the ideas that it
In discussing a table, do not simply
repeat the data so that the table will not
be rendered useless. Instead, point out
relationships, implications and other
generalizations that can be derived from
the data
Analysis of data
Include the following in the
a. all possible explanations
and applications of the findings
b. Any defect in the
methodology that may have
affected the research outcome
Analysis of data
Report all findings including
that negate the research
In reporting results of
statistical tests, include the
degrees of freedom and level
of significance
Analysis of data
In quantitative research, the
report of findings should
statements as to whether the
null hypothesis are rejected or
not based on the results of
statistical tests
Analysis of data
In case the findings indicate a
need to revise the original
conceptual framework
It is not necessary to summarize
the findings in the chapter on
results. It should be done in Part
5 of the report ( CONCLUSIONS)
This is Part 5 of the report. It answers
the question: What is the meaning of
what you found in your study? It starts
with a brief summary of the study (i.e
from the problem to the results)
followed by the conclusions and
finally, the recommendations.
This section gives the reader an overview of
the study from Part 1 to Part 4.
The summary of the first three parts is usually
narrative. But the summary of the findings is
presented differently. The findings are listed
consecutively and numbered for easy
reference in the discussion of the conclusions
and recommendations, which are both based
on specific findings. The findings are placed
under the subheading Summary of Findings
The summary of the first three
parts is written in the past
tense, while the summary of
findings is written in the
present tense.
The Summary does not
contain any new information
This section describes how to draw
generalizations from the findings. The
guidelines below are suggested for this
Conclusions are based on specific
findings; meaning, the finding is cited
together with the conclusion.
Any generalization which is not supported
by sufficient data is not acceptable
Conclusions apply only to the
population represented by the
sample studied
Conclusions are written in the
present tense.
This section contains the implications of the research
finding. Following are suggestion for writing
Recommendations are based on specific findings. If a
directly relevant finding cannot be cited, the
recommendation is not acceptable
Two implications of research findings are:
a. implications for action and policies that may be
b. implications for further research (what
improvements can be done on the present study; how
the present study may be expanded