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Concrete Design


 It is an artificial stone derived from a mixture of properly

proportioned amount of hydraulic cement, fine
aggregates, coarse aggregates and water, with or without

 A mixture of Portland cement or any other hydraulic

cement, fine aggregates, course aggregates and water,
with or without admixtures.

 Is a material other than water, aggregate or hydraulic

cement used as an ingredient of concrete and added to
concrete before and during its mixing to modify its

Accelerator – an admixture which hasten the hardening rate

and/or initial setting time of concrete.

Retarder – an admixture which slows the setting rate of


Concrete Design Mix

Admixture Cement
0% 12%



Typical distribution of raw materials by volume

for a normal strength concrete.

Concrete Design Mix

Gravel Water
18% 0%


Cement accounts for most of the concrete raw material cost.
Reinforced Concrete

Is a composite material in which concrete’s

relatively low tensile strength and ductility are
countered by the inclusion of reinforcement having
higher tensile strength and ductility.
Choice of slump
If slump is not specified, a value appropriate for the work
can be selected from the given table:
Table A1.5.3.1 Recommended Slumps for
Various Types of Construction (SI)
Slump, mm
Types of construction
Maximum Minimum
Reinforced foundation walls and footings 75 25
Plain footings, caissons & substructure walls 75 25
Beams and reinforced walls 100 25
Building columns 100 25
Pavements and Slabs 75 25
Mass concrete 75 25
Slump Test

 Slump is a measurement of concrete's workability, or fluidity.

 It's an indirect measurement of concrete consistency or stiffness.

Types of Slumps

 The slumped concrete takes various shapes,

and according to the profile of slumped
concrete, the slump is termed as;

 Slump Mold
 Dimension of Slump Cone:
 Diameter of the base – 203 mm
 Diameter of the top – 102 mm
 Altitude – 305 mm

 Tamping Rod
 A tamping rod made of round, straight steel 16 mm in diameter
and approximately 600 mm in length,with the tamping end
rounded to a hemispherical tip of 16 mm diameter.

 Shovel / Scoop and Ruler


1. To obtain a representative sample, take samples from two or more

regular intervals throughout the discharge of the mixer or truck. DO
NOT take samples at the beginning or the end of the discharge.

2. Dampen inside of cone and place it on a smooth, moist, non-

absorbent, level surface large enough to accommodate both the
slumped concrete and the slump cone. Stand or, foot pieces
throughout the test procedure to hold the cone firmly in place.

3. Fill cone 1/3 full by volume and rod 25 times with steel tamping rod.
Distribute rodding evenly over the entire cross section of the sample.

4. Fill cone 2/3 full by volume. Rod this layer 25 times with rod penetrating
into, but not through first layer. Distribute rodding evenly over the entire
cross section of the layer.

5. Fill cone to overflowing. Rod this layer 25 times with rod penetrating into
but not through, second layer. Distribute rodding evenly over the entire
cross section of this layer.

6. Remove the excess concrete from the top of the cone, using tamping rod
as a screed. Clean overflow from base of cone.

7. Immediately lift cone vertically with slow, even motion. Do not jar the
concrete or tilt the cone during this process. Invert the withdrawn cone,
and place next to, but not touching the slumped concrete. (Perform in 5-
10 seconds with no lateral or torsional motion.)
8. Lay a straight edge across the top of the slump cone. Measure the
amount of slump in inches from the bottom of the straight edge to
the top of the slumped concrete at a point over the original center
of the base. The slump operation shall be completed in a maximum
elapsed time of 2 1/2 minutes. Discard concrete. DO NOT use in
any other tests.



Slump Cone
Slump Test

Testing tip:
Since concrete setting is time and temperature dependent, this test must be
started within 5 minutes after obtaining the composite sample and completed
within 2 ½ minutes after the filling process begins.
Water-cement ratio [w/c] or
water cementitious material ratio [w/(c+p)]

The required water cement ratio is determined not

only by strength requirements but also by factors such
as durability.
Since different aggregates, cements and cementitious
materials will produce different strength at the same
w/c ratio, it is highly desirable to have or develop the
relationship between strength and w/c ratio for the
materials actually to be used.
In the absence of such data, approximate and
relatively conservative values for concrete containing
Type I portland cement can be taken from table.
Table A1.5.3.4(a) Relationship between Water-cement Ratio
and Compressive Strength of Concrete (SI)

Water-cement ration, by mass

Compressive strength at 28 Non-air-entrained Air-entrained

days, Mpa Concrete Concrete

40 0.42
35 0.47 0.39
30 0.54 0.45
25 0.61 0.52
20 0.69 0.60
15 0.79 0.70
Maximum size of aggregate

Large nominal maximum sizes of well graded aggregates

have less voids than smaller sizes. Hence, concrete with
the larger-sizes well graded aggregates requires less
mortar per unit volume of concrete.
Generally, the nominal maximum size of aggregate
should be the largest that is economically available and
consistent with dimensions of the structure.
In no event should the nominal maximum size exceed
• one-fifth of the narrowest dimension between sides of forms,
• one-third the depth of slabs,
• nor three-fourths of the minimum clear spacing between
individual reinforcing bars, bundles of bars or pre-tensioning

Curing of concrete is defined as providing adequate moisture,

temperature, and time to allow the concrete to achieve the desired
properties for its intended use. This would mean maintaining a
relative humidity in the concrete of greater than 80 percent, a
temperature greater than 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and for a time
typically ranging from three to 14 days depending on the specific
A. Application of water to counteract evaporation
• Ponding
• Sprinkling
• Spraying
• Wet burlap
• Wet Earth
• Wet Sand
• Saw Dust
• Straw

B. Application of water proof paper or moisture retention cover sealing

curing compound

* Continuous moist curing at a temperature range of 15.5oC –

37.5oC gives the best results
(AASHTO Designation T 23)
(ASTM Designation C 31)

For the method of making and curing concrete specimens in the

laboratory (AASHTO Designation T126)

1. Molding of (cylindrical specimens) compression test specimens

3 layers
25 blows/layer

24” 12”

1 set (3 cylinders) for every 75 m3 or

fraction thereof, each day of pouring

5/8” Rammer
2. Molding of (Beam) Flexure Test Specimens
For Concrete Pavement
Beam Specimens
A= L x W
= 21” x 6”
= 126 sq. in.
1 Blow per 2 sq. in.

126 blows
= 63
2 layer

2 layers
63 blows / layer using the
same rammer as in concrete
cylinder sample
1. Flexural Strength of Beam Specimens
a. Third Point Loading Method

R= PL = P 18 = P in #
6” x 6” x 6” 12 in2
1 in Min.
R = Modulus of rupture, psi or Mpa
D = L/3 Specimen
P = Load in lbs. or in tons
L = Span length in inches
L/3 L/3 l/3

b = base in inches
Span Length
d = depth
1. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface within the
middle third of the span length.
R =

2. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface outside of

the middle third of the span length by not more than
5 percent of the span length.
R = 3 Pa
a = average distance between line of fracture and the
nearest support measured on the tension surface of the
Example: Flexural Strength using the third point loading
Method, FS
FS = 2.40 tons x 2204.6 lbs X = 440.92 psi
tons 12 in2

FS = 440.92 psi x .006895 = 3.04 MPa
b. Center Point Loading Method:

1 in. min.
(25 mm)


L/2 L/2
Span Length,

3 PL
2 bd2

Where: R = Modulus of Rupture

P = Load
L = Span length
b – base
d = depth
(AASHTO Designation T 22)
(ASTM Designation C 39)

Rate of Loading for Compressive Strength test:

Load applied at a constant rate within range 20 to 50 psi / sec.
For Cylinder:
Cross Sectional Area = IID2
Ac= 3.1416 (6”) = 28.27 in.2

12” Compressive Strength = 64,000 lbs X .006895 Mpa
28.27 in.2 psi
CS = 15.6 MPa

DPWH Spec’s (Blue Book)

Compressive Strength requirement – 24.1 Mpa (3,500 psi)
Min. at 14 days

– a steel product of plain, round or deformed cross-section for

concrete reinforcement
 Classification
Deformed Steel Bar – surface of which is provided with lugs or
protrusions called deformation.

 Plain Steel Bar – without surface deformation

 Grade - Steel bar shall be graded according to its minimum

yield strength
 Grade 280 (40) bars are furnished only in sizes 3 through 6
(10 mm through 19 mm)

 Grade 520 (75) bars are furnished only in sizes through 18

(19 mm through 57 mm)
 Length – available at 5.0, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 meters

 Sizes - 10mm, 12mm, 16mm, 20mm, 25mm, 28mm, 32mm, 36mm,

40mm and 50 mm in diameter
Weight measurement per meter length of steel bar
Elongation : express as the increase in length of the gage length as a
percentage of the original gage length.

Elongation, % : Final Elongation, mm – Gage Length, mm x 100

Gage Length, mm

DPWH Specification:

Elongation, % : See Table (Based on the size of steel bar)

Measurement of rebar elongation

Deformation Measurements (For deformed Bar)
 Average spacing (spacing between the lugs)

 Average Height (Height of the lug)

 Gap (Width of the Rib)

Measurement of rebar deformation

Reinforced Concrete
Factored Load = Load Factor x Load

Ultimate Capacity = Reduction Factor x Nominal Capacity

Strength Reduction Factors F(Phi)

 A. Flexure without axial . . . . . . . 0.90

 Axial tension, and axial tension with flexure . . . . . 0.90
 Axial Compression, and Axial Compression with Flexure
 A. Spiral . . . . . . . 0.75
 B. Ties . . . . . . . 0.70
 Shear and Tension . . . . . . . 0.85
 Bearing on Concrete . . . . . . . 0.70
Minimum thickness of beams
Analysis and Design of beams

Balanced Section
The steel provided in the beam is such that both concrete
and steel reach the limiting values of strain simultaneously.
Steel ratio

Ratio of tension
r = As/bd
rmax = .75rbal
*For flexure members, it
should not exceed .75 of rmin = 1.4/fy
r balance

*and not less than 1.4/fy

Analysis and Design of beams
Under Reinforced Section

The steel provided in the beam is such that steel reach the limiting
values of strain prior to concrete. This results in yielding of the steel and
the steel could yield till it attains the ultimate strain at which point it
Analysis and Design of beams

Over Reinforced Section

The steel provided in the beam is such that concrete reach

the limiting values of strain prior to steel. This results in
breaking of concrete and since now there is no concrete
present to take the compression the beam fails suddenly.

The additional margin that we get in under reinforced

section helps in prevention of a sudden failure and provide
the necessary warning to the inhabitants of the building.
Singly Reinforced Beam

Singly reinforced beam is one

in which the main
reinforcement is provided only
in the tension zone and also
here the ultimate bending
moment is less than the
limiting bending moment.
Doubly Reinforced Beam

Occasionally, beams are

restricted by space or
aesthetic requirements to such
extent the compression
concrete should be reinforced
with steel to carry
T- Beam

Reinforced concrete floor

usually consist of slabs and
beams, which are placed or
poured monolithically. In this
effect, the beam will have an
extra width at the top (that is
under compression) ca;;ed
Mu = Moment Capacity of beams
Shear Reinforcements
Shear Reinforcements

Another type of beam failure other than bending

failure is shear failure. Shear failures are very
dangerous especially if it happens before flexure
failure because they can occur without warning
Type of Stirrups
The design of bending members for shear is based
on the assumption that concrete resist part of the
shear and any excess over and above what the
concrete could carry should be resisted by shear
reinforcement which may take in several forms.
a. Vertical stirrups
b. Inclined or diagonal stirrups; and
c. The main reinforcement bent at ends to act as
inclined stirrups
Type of Shear Reinforcement

According to Section of the Code, shear

reinforcement may consist of
a. Stirrups perpendicular to axis of member, and
b. Welded wire fabric with wires located
perpendicular to axis of member
Shear reinforcements shall be provided in all
reinforced concrete flexural members except as
1. slab and footings.
2. beams with any of the following:
a total depth less than 250mm,
2.5 times the flange thickness or
½ the width of the web, whichever is greater.
3. in concrete joist construction
4. where Vu < ϕ𝑉𝑐
Criteria Equations

φVc = φ1/6√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑
Vc = shear force that concrete alone resists
b = width of rectangular beam or
=width of web for a T-beam
d = effective depth of beam
Φ = strength reduction factor = 0.85

Vu = 𝑤 L − 𝑤𝑢 d (for simply supported beams)
2 𝑢
Spacing of Stirrups

𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑦𝑑 𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑦𝑑
S= = 𝑉𝑢
𝑉𝑠 − 𝑉𝑐
Vs = Vu/φ – Vc
Vs = Vn – Vc = nominal shear strength provided by the shear reinforcement
Vn = Vu/φ
Vc = 1/6√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑
when Vu > 2 ϕ𝑉𝑐 (needs stirrups)
Spacing Criterion

 Smax = d/2 ≤ 600mm if Vs ≤ 1/3√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

 Smax = d/2 ≤ 300𝑚𝑚 if Vs > 1/3√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

 Smin > 2/3√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

 Smin = 75mm or 100mm
Minimum area of web reinforcement

Av =

Av = 2As = 157𝑚𝑚2 (for 10mm φ stirrups)

b = width of rectangular beam or
= web width for T-beams
S = spacing of stirrups center to center (mm)
fy = yield strength of web reinforcement
Development Length

min(12 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 , 300𝑚𝑚)
Development Length

Bar development length or Ld is the embedment

necessary to assure that the bar can be stressed to
its yield point with some reserved to insure
member toughness
Basic Development Length of Bars

For 32mm and smaller

0.02 ∗ 𝐴𝑏 ∗ 𝑓𝑦
𝐿𝑑𝑏 = ≥ 0.06 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 ∗ 𝑓𝑦

For 36mm
25 ∗ 𝑓𝑦
𝐿𝑑𝑏 =
For deformed wire
3 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 ∗ 𝑓𝑦
𝐿𝑑𝑏 =
8 ∗ 𝑓′𝑐
Clear Cover
Sample Problems

What is the minimum concrete cover of

cast-in-place 2ndfloor slabs considering
42mm dia bars??
40 mm
Sample Problems

What is the minimum concrete cover of

cast-in-place slab on fill considering
16mm dia bars?
75 mm
Standard Hooks
Tied columns
Axial Load Capacity
∅𝑃𝑛 = ∝ ∅ ∙ 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡

𝑃𝑛 = Nominal Strength
𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛 = Ultimate Load
∅ = Reduction Factor
𝑓 ′𝑐 = Concrete Strength
𝐴𝑔 = Gross area of the Column
𝐴𝑠𝑡 = Area of Steel
Longitudinal bars

 0.01Ag < Ast < 0.06Ag

 𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔_𝑚𝑖𝑛 =
max(1.5 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 , 40𝑚𝑚)
Spacing of Lateral Ties

The spacing of these ties shall not

 16 longitudinal bar diameter,
 48 tie bar diameter or
 the least dimension of the
compression member.
Lateral Ties and stirrups

10 mm - Longitudinal bars with

32mm or smaller

12mm - Longitudinal bars with

36mm or larger and for bundled
Longitudinal bars
Spiral Columns
 For Cast-in-place, Minimum size is 10 mm
 Ratio of Volume of Steel to Volume of Gross area is
derived by the equation:
4 ∗ 𝑎𝑠 ∗ ( 𝐷𝑐 − 𝑑𝑠 )
𝜌𝑠 =
𝑠 ∗ 𝐷𝑐 2
Minimum ratio can be derived by:
𝐴𝑔 𝑓′𝑐
𝜌𝑠_𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.45 ∗ −1 ∗
𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑦
Spacing of Spiral Ties

 MinimumSpacing of Spirals is 25mm

 Maximum Spacing of Spiral is 75mm