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Oct 18, 2019

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Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

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Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

© All Rights Reserved

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Concrete

proportioned amount of hydraulic cement, fine

aggregates, coarse aggregates and water, with or without

admixtures.

cement, fine aggregates, course aggregates and water,

with or without admixtures.

Admixture

cement used as an ingredient of concrete and added to

concrete before and during its mixing to modify its

properties.

Admixture

and/or initial setting time of concrete.

concrete.

Portland

Chemical

Admixture Cement

Water

0% 12%

17%

Sand

Gravel

33%

38%

CONCRETE VOLUME

for a normal strength concrete.

Chemical

Gravel Water

Admixture

18% 0%

7%

Sand

7%

Portland

Cement

68%

CONCRETE COST

Note:

Cement accounts for most of the concrete raw material cost.

Reinforced Concrete

relatively low tensile strength and ductility are

countered by the inclusion of reinforcement having

higher tensile strength and ductility.

Choice of slump

If slump is not specified, a value appropriate for the work

can be selected from the given table:

Table A1.5.3.1 Recommended Slumps for

Various Types of Construction (SI)

Slump, mm

Types of construction

Maximum Minimum

Reinforced foundation walls and footings 75 25

Plain footings, caissons & substructure walls 75 25

Beams and reinforced walls 100 25

Building columns 100 25

Pavements and Slabs 75 25

Mass concrete 75 25

Slump Test

Types of Slumps

and according to the profile of slumped

concrete, the slump is termed as;

Apparatus

Slump Mold

Dimension of Slump Cone:

Diameter of the base – 203 mm

Diameter of the top – 102 mm

Altitude – 305 mm

Apparatus

Tamping Rod

A tamping rod made of round, straight steel 16 mm in diameter

and approximately 600 mm in length,with the tamping end

rounded to a hemispherical tip of 16 mm diameter.

Apparatus

Procedure

regular intervals throughout the discharge of the mixer or truck. DO

NOT take samples at the beginning or the end of the discharge.

absorbent, level surface large enough to accommodate both the

slumped concrete and the slump cone. Stand or, foot pieces

throughout the test procedure to hold the cone firmly in place.

3. Fill cone 1/3 full by volume and rod 25 times with steel tamping rod.

Distribute rodding evenly over the entire cross section of the sample.

Procedure

4. Fill cone 2/3 full by volume. Rod this layer 25 times with rod penetrating

into, but not through first layer. Distribute rodding evenly over the entire

cross section of the layer.

5. Fill cone to overflowing. Rod this layer 25 times with rod penetrating into

but not through, second layer. Distribute rodding evenly over the entire

cross section of this layer.

6. Remove the excess concrete from the top of the cone, using tamping rod

as a screed. Clean overflow from base of cone.

7. Immediately lift cone vertically with slow, even motion. Do not jar the

concrete or tilt the cone during this process. Invert the withdrawn cone,

and place next to, but not touching the slumped concrete. (Perform in 5-

10 seconds with no lateral or torsional motion.)

Procedure

8. Lay a straight edge across the top of the slump cone. Measure the

amount of slump in inches from the bottom of the straight edge to

the top of the slumped concrete at a point over the original center

of the base. The slump operation shall be completed in a maximum

elapsed time of 2 1/2 minutes. Discard concrete. DO NOT use in

any other tests.

Slump

Ruler

Slump Cone

Slump Test

Testing tip:

Since concrete setting is time and temperature dependent, this test must be

started within 5 minutes after obtaining the composite sample and completed

within 2 ½ minutes after the filling process begins.

Water-cement ratio [w/c] or

water cementitious material ratio [w/(c+p)]

only by strength requirements but also by factors such

as durability.

Since different aggregates, cements and cementitious

materials will produce different strength at the same

w/c ratio, it is highly desirable to have or develop the

relationship between strength and w/c ratio for the

materials actually to be used.

In the absence of such data, approximate and

relatively conservative values for concrete containing

Type I portland cement can be taken from table.

Table A1.5.3.4(a) Relationship between Water-cement Ratio

and Compressive Strength of Concrete (SI)

days, Mpa Concrete Concrete

40 0.42

35 0.47 0.39

30 0.54 0.45

25 0.61 0.52

20 0.69 0.60

15 0.79 0.70

Maximum size of aggregate

have less voids than smaller sizes. Hence, concrete with

the larger-sizes well graded aggregates requires less

mortar per unit volume of concrete.

Generally, the nominal maximum size of aggregate

should be the largest that is economically available and

consistent with dimensions of the structure.

In no event should the nominal maximum size exceed

• one-fifth of the narrowest dimension between sides of forms,

• one-third the depth of slabs,

• nor three-fourths of the minimum clear spacing between

individual reinforcing bars, bundles of bars or pre-tensioning

strands.

CURING OF CONCRETE

temperature, and time to allow the concrete to achieve the desired

properties for its intended use. This would mean maintaining a

relative humidity in the concrete of greater than 80 percent, a

temperature greater than 50 degrees Fahrenheit, and for a time

typically ranging from three to 14 days depending on the specific

application.

CURING

A. Application of water to counteract evaporation

• Ponding

• Sprinkling

• Spraying

• Wet burlap

• Wet Earth

• Wet Sand

• Saw Dust

• Straw

curing compound

37.5oC gives the best results

II. MAKING AND CURING OF CONCRETE COMPRESSION

AND FLEXURE TEST SPECIMENS IN FIELD

(AASHTO Designation T 23)

(ASTM Designation C 31)

laboratory (AASHTO Designation T126)

3 layers

25 blows/layer

24” 12”

fraction thereof, each day of pouring

6”

5/8” Rammer

2. Molding of (Beam) Flexure Test Specimens

For Concrete Pavement

Beam Specimens

A= L x W

= 21” x 6”

= 126 sq. in.

1 Blow per 2 sq. in.

6”

126 blows

= 63

2 layer

6”

21”

2 layers

63 blows / layer using the

same rammer as in concrete

cylinder sample

III. STRENGTH DETERMINATION OF CONCRETE

TEST SPECIMENS (AASHTO T 97)

1. Flexural Strength of Beam Specimens

a. Third Point Loading Method

R= PL = P 18 = P in #

6” x 6” x 6” 12 in2

bd2

//////////////

1 in Min.

Where:

R = Modulus of rupture, psi or Mpa

D = L/3 Specimen

P = Load in lbs. or in tons

L = Span length in inches

L/3 L/3 l/3

b = base in inches

Span Length

d = depth

L

1. If the fracture occurs in the tension surface within the

middle third of the span length.

PL

R =

bd2

the middle third of the span length by not more than

5 percent of the span length.

R = 3 Pa

bd2

Where:

a = average distance between line of fracture and the

nearest support measured on the tension surface of the

beam.

Example: Flexural Strength using the third point loading

Method, FS

1

FS = 2.40 tons x 2204.6 lbs X = 440.92 psi

tons 12 in2

Mpa

FS = 440.92 psi x .006895 = 3.04 MPa

psi

b. Center Point Loading Method:

1 in. min.

(25 mm)

L/3

L/2 L/2

Span Length,

L

3 PL

R=

2 bd2

P = Load

L = Span length

b – base

d = depth

STRENGTH OF CYLINDRICAL CONCRETE SPECIMENS

(AASHTO Designation T 22)

(ASTM Designation C 39)

Load applied at a constant rate within range 20 to 50 psi / sec.

For Cylinder:

6”

Cross Sectional Area = IID2

4

Ac= 3.1416 (6”) = 28.27 in.2

2

4

12” Compressive Strength = 64,000 lbs X .006895 Mpa

28.27 in.2 psi

CS = 15.6 MPa

Compressive Strength requirement – 24.1 Mpa (3,500 psi)

Min. at 14 days

REINFORCING STEEL BAR

REINFORCING STEEL BAR

concrete reinforcement

Classification

Deformed Steel Bar – surface of which is provided with lugs or

protrusions called deformation.

yield strength

Grade 280 (40) bars are furnished only in sizes 3 through 6

(10 mm through 19 mm)

(19 mm through 57 mm)

Length – available at 5.0, 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, 10.5 and 12.0 meters

40mm and 50 mm in diameter

Weight measurement per meter length of steel bar

TENSILE STRENGTH DETERMINATION OF REINFORCING STEEL BARS

Elongation : express as the increase in length of the gage length as a

percentage of the original gage length.

Gage Length, mm

DPWH Specification:

Deformation Measurements (For deformed Bar)

Average spacing (spacing between the lugs)

Reinforced Concrete

Design

Factored Load = Load Factor x Load

BEAMS

Strength Reduction Factors F(Phi)

Axial tension, and axial tension with flexure . . . . . 0.90

Axial Compression, and Axial Compression with Flexure

A. Spiral . . . . . . . 0.75

B. Ties . . . . . . . 0.70

Shear and Tension . . . . . . . 0.85

Bearing on Concrete . . . . . . . 0.70

Minimum thickness of beams

Analysis and Design of beams

Balanced Section

The steel provided in the beam is such that both concrete

and steel reach the limiting values of strain simultaneously.

Steel ratio

Ratio of tension

r = As/bd

reinforcement

rmax = .75rbal

*For flexure members, it

should not exceed .75 of rmin = 1.4/fy

r balance

Analysis and Design of beams

Under Reinforced Section

The steel provided in the beam is such that steel reach the limiting

values of strain prior to concrete. This results in yielding of the steel and

the steel could yield till it attains the ultimate strain at which point it

breaks.

Analysis and Design of beams

the limiting values of strain prior to steel. This results in

breaking of concrete and since now there is no concrete

present to take the compression the beam fails suddenly.

section helps in prevention of a sudden failure and provide

the necessary warning to the inhabitants of the building.

Singly Reinforced Beam

in which the main

reinforcement is provided only

in the tension zone and also

here the ultimate bending

moment is less than the

limiting bending moment.

Doubly Reinforced Beam

restricted by space or

aesthetic requirements to such

extent the compression

concrete should be reinforced

with steel to carry

compression.

T- Beam

usually consist of slabs and

beams, which are placed or

poured monolithically. In this

effect, the beam will have an

extra width at the top (that is

under compression) ca;;ed

flanges.

Mu = Moment Capacity of beams

Shear Reinforcements

Shear Reinforcements

failure is shear failure. Shear failures are very

dangerous especially if it happens before flexure

failure because they can occur without warning

Type of Stirrups

The design of bending members for shear is based

on the assumption that concrete resist part of the

shear and any excess over and above what the

concrete could carry should be resisted by shear

reinforcement which may take in several forms.

a. Vertical stirrups

b. Inclined or diagonal stirrups; and

c. The main reinforcement bent at ends to act as

inclined stirrups

Type of Shear Reinforcement

reinforcement may consist of

a. Stirrups perpendicular to axis of member, and

b. Welded wire fabric with wires located

perpendicular to axis of member

Exceptions

Shear reinforcements shall be provided in all

reinforced concrete flexural members except as

follows:

1. slab and footings.

2. beams with any of the following:

a total depth less than 250mm,

2.5 times the flange thickness or

½ the width of the web, whichever is greater.

3. in concrete joist construction

1

4. where Vu < ϕ𝑉𝑐

2

Criteria Equations

φVc = φ1/6√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

Vc = shear force that concrete alone resists

b = width of rectangular beam or

=width of web for a T-beam

d = effective depth of beam

Φ = strength reduction factor = 0.85

1

Vu = 𝑤 L − 𝑤𝑢 d (for simply supported beams)

2 𝑢

Spacing of Stirrups

𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑦𝑑 𝐴𝑣𝑓𝑦𝑑

S= = 𝑉𝑢

𝑉𝑠 − 𝑉𝑐

ϕ

Vs = Vu/φ – Vc

Vs = Vn – Vc = nominal shear strength provided by the shear reinforcement

Vn = Vu/φ

Vc = 1/6√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

1

when Vu > 2 ϕ𝑉𝑐 (needs stirrups)

Spacing Criterion

Smax = d/2 ≤ 300𝑚𝑚 if Vs > 1/3√𝑓𝑐 ′ 𝑏𝑑

Smin = 75mm or 100mm

Minimum area of web reinforcement

𝑏𝑆

Av =

3𝑓𝑦

b = width of rectangular beam or

= web width for T-beams

S = spacing of stirrups center to center (mm)

fy = yield strength of web reinforcement

Development Length

min(12 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 , 300𝑚𝑚)

Development Length

necessary to assure that the bar can be stressed to

its yield point with some reserved to insure

member toughness

Basic Development Length of Bars

0.02 ∗ 𝐴𝑏 ∗ 𝑓𝑦

𝐿𝑑𝑏 = ≥ 0.06 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 ∗ 𝑓𝑦

𝑓′𝑐

For 36mm

25 ∗ 𝑓𝑦

𝐿𝑑𝑏 =

𝑓′𝑐

For deformed wire

3 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 ∗ 𝑓𝑦

𝐿𝑑𝑏 =

8 ∗ 𝑓′𝑐

Clear Cover

Sample Problems

cast-in-place 2ndfloor slabs considering

42mm dia bars??

40 mm

Sample Problems

cast-in-place slab on fill considering

16mm dia bars?

75 mm

Standard Hooks

Tied columns

Axial Load Capacity

∅𝑃𝑛 = ∝ ∅ ∙ 0.85𝑓 ′ 𝑐 𝐴𝑔 − 𝐴𝑠𝑡 + 𝑓𝑦 𝐴𝑠𝑡

Where

𝑃𝑛 = Nominal Strength

𝑃𝑢 = ∅𝑃𝑛 = Ultimate Load

∅ = Reduction Factor

𝑓 ′𝑐 = Concrete Strength

𝐴𝑔 = Gross area of the Column

𝐴𝑠𝑡 = Area of Steel

Longitudinal bars

𝑠𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔_𝑚𝑖𝑛 =

max(1.5 ∗ 𝑑𝑏 , 40𝑚𝑚)

Spacing of Lateral Ties

exceed:

16 longitudinal bar diameter,

48 tie bar diameter or

the least dimension of the

compression member.

Lateral Ties and stirrups

32mm or smaller

36mm or larger and for bundled

Longitudinal bars

Spiral Columns

Spirals

For Cast-in-place, Minimum size is 10 mm

Ratio of Volume of Steel to Volume of Gross area is

derived by the equation:

4 ∗ 𝑎𝑠 ∗ ( 𝐷𝑐 − 𝑑𝑠 )

𝜌𝑠 =

𝑠 ∗ 𝐷𝑐 2

Minimum ratio can be derived by:

𝐴𝑔 𝑓′𝑐

𝜌𝑠_𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 0.45 ∗ −1 ∗

𝐴𝑐 𝑓𝑦

Spacing of Spiral Ties

Maximum Spacing of Spiral is 75mm

THANK YOU!!

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