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Bending Stress

Galileo’s illustration of a beam


subjected to bending, 1638.

Galileo assumed that the beam cross-


section has constant stress throughout!
Although incorrect, his study led others to
take up beam as a worthy subject. This in
turn lead to the rapid development of
engineering as a whole.

Galileo’s contributions to science and his


great personal suffering are well known.
Without Galileo, there would not have
been a Newton as we today. And without
Newton there would not have been a
modern physics, mathematics or
engineering.
W Kgf W Kgf

x x
R1 R2

Wx Kgf-cm Wx Kgf-cm

SF Diagram

BM Diagram
Zufiva Chinshanlo
2009 world weight
Lifting championship.
This is a case of pure bending subjected
to equal and opposite couples acting in
the same longitudinal plane.
N.A

 
xy
xy
xx
xx
xy

xy xy

xx
xy

Two types of stresses are developed:


(a) direct or normal stress known as bending, flexural or fibre stress
(b) shearing stress

• Flexural stress caused by the bending moment applied xy plane while shearing stress
is due to shear force
PURE BENDING AND
NONUNIFORM BENDING
Assumptions for pure bending of beam
 Longitudinal lines become curved. The lines squeezed in one side
and stretched in the other side.
 Plane section remains plane but rotate as long as deformations are
small and shear effect is negligible.
 The material of the beam remains elastic during loading

 The material of the beam is perfectly homogeneous and isotropic


and modulus of elasticity in tension is equal to that in compression.
 There is no resultant force perpendicular to any cross-section.
  xx dA  0
A
 The bending stress is entirely due to the B.M
 y xx dA  M
A


H’ -y

G’
A’ H’
M C’ G’ M
y
E’ B’ A’ D’
B’
F’ E’ F’
M
M
G H G
H
C D C D
A B A B
E F
x E F
 Radius of neutral plane after bending = 
 Radius of plane C’D’ =  - y

(i) Length, AB = CD = A’B’ =  

(ii) Length C’D’ = ( - y) 

Change in length C D  AB


Hence, strain in fiber CD (x)  
Original length AB


 y    

y

y
  

 Condition apply : Stress in each fiber is proportional to its longitudinal strain


y
 x  xE  E (Fiber stress due to pure bending vary

linearly with distance y).
The beam as shown in figure given below has rectangular cross section whose width is
100 mm and depth is 150 mm. Calculate the maximum stress. Also calculate the
maximum stress on section C.

3.11 kN 3.64 kN

3.11 kN

3.64 kN

7.531 kN - m
4.668 kN - m
Assignment

Find out the moment of inertia (second area moment) about its centroidal –x axis
of the following figures:

b/2 b/2

h H h H h H

b
b

B
B B
Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Section modulus
The ratio of I/y where y is the farthest or the most distant point of the section from the neutral
Axis is called section modulus. It is denoted by Z.

Moment of inertia about neutral axis I


Z 
Distance of the farthest point from neutral axis ymax

I
Thus, M max  Z
section ymax

Moment of resistance

The maximum bending moment which can be carried by a given section for a given maximum
Value of stress is known as the moment of resistance (Mr)
Assign. 1: A simply supported timber beam having 6 m long carries a single concentrated
load P at ¼ th distance from one end. The beam has 100 mm by 300 mm rectangular cross-
section. Determine the maximum value of P if the fibre stress is not exceed 8.25 MN/m2
and (a) 100 mm side is horizontal (b) 300 mm side is horizontal.
Case I Case II
P
100 mm 300 mm

100 mm

300 mm
R1 = 0.75 P R2 = 0.25 P
Assign. 2: Three wooden planks-one 600×100 mm2 and two 300×100 mm2 each, are to be
joined in (a) to make a rectangular section of 600 mm depth by 200 mm width, (b) to make
an I-section of 800 mm depth (see figures). If the maximum B.M to be supported by the
beam so formed is 140 kN-m, calculate the maximum bending stress in two cases.
Prob. 4: For a beam shown in figure below, Ixx = 4000 cm4
W
and yc = 9 cm, find the maximum safe value of W if the M A  M B    90  18W kgf-cm
5
working stress in tension is 400 kgf/cm2 and in W W
compression is 750 kgf/cm2. M C  150   240  27W kgf-cm
2 5
W 3W W
150 cm 16
5 5 5
90 cm 300 cm 90 cm 9
18W 288
W For max.  t max  16  W
RA  RB  4000 4000
2 Negative
18W 162
S.F moment  c max  9  W
4000 4000
27W 243
 t max  9  W
For max. 4000 4000
B.M Positive 27W 432
moment  c max  16  W
4000 4000
• For maximum tensile stress
288
Slope W  400  W  5,555 kgf
4000
• For maximum compressive stress
432
Deflection W  750  W  6,944 kgf
4000
Assignment. 3: A simply supported beam and its cross-section are shown in figure below. The
beam carries a load P = 1000 kfg. Its self weight 350 kgf/m. Calculate the maximum bending
stress and give your statement for failure of the beam due to bending.
10 cm
1000 kgf
10 cm

200 cm 100 cm 20 cm

20 cm