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Dr. Gesang Nugroho, ST. MT.

Definition of Manufacture

• Manufacture is transformation of raw material into finish product by

using resources and knowledge

• Resources: casting, machining (turning, milling, drilling, grinding),

forming (rolling, forging, extrusion, drawing), welding, surface
technology and so on.
• Knowledge: machine design, CAD, CAM, NC programming,
operation management, production system and so on.
• Flow of manufacturing process:
1. Company decision
market research/survey: trend, product specification etc
2. Product design
dimension, bill of material, CNC program etc.
3. Fabrication and assembly
casting, machining, welding forming etc
4. Distribution and after sale service
maintenance, spare part and recycle
Demand to product increase time by time:
• quality
• Geometry complexity
• Reducing production cost
• Reducing production time
So that development and improvement of production process must be
done. One method to improve production process is automation.
Benefits of production automation:
a. Improve product quality
high accuracy, high repeatability, high complexity
b. Reduce production cost
increase productivity

In overall, production automation can increase production process

Automation block diagram

• Plant is a system that will be controlled

• Basically there 2 type of control system:
Motion control
Process control
• For design a good performance controller, an accurate mathematic
model of the system must be derived.
Motion control examples

• CNC machine

• Robot
• Assembly line

• conveyor
Process control examples

• Steam power plant

• Fertilizer factory
• Cement factory

• Oil distillation
• Polypropylene

Displacement sensor
• Potensiometer

• Optical encoder
• Speed sensor  tachogenerator

• Acceleration sensor  accelerometer

• Force sensor  strain gauge load cell

• Pressure sensor
• Flow sensor  turbine meter

• Temperature sensor

thermocouple LM35
Proximity (noncontacting) sensor

• Magnetic reed switch

• Inductive proximity switch

• Photoelectric proximity switch

• Distance sensor
Control element (actuator)

• Electric motor:
DC motor
Stepper motor
Servo motor
AC motor
• Pneumatic
• Hydraulic
DC motor

• Brushless DC motor
Stepper motor

• Motor with specific angle rotation

Servo motor

• DC motor with position sensor


• Linear actuator
AC motor

• For linear actuator

• Pneumatic system diagram
Valve and cylinder

• Actuator with high power

• Hydraulic system diagram
Hydraulic valve
Hydraulic cylinder and motor
• Excavator

• Controller consist of 2 components:

• Software: root locus, PID, Optimal, Robust, Fuzzy, Neural network
and so on
• Hardware: Microcontroller, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC),

• Lightweight, small size and cheap.

• Manufacturer:

Microcontroller applications

• Air conditioner

• Washing machine
• Camera

• Mobile phone
• Mobile robot

• Printer
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

• Easier for installation and troubleshooting

PLC applications

• Lift

• Conveyor
• Rolling machine

• Forging machine

• Drawing machine

• System with complex control algorithm

• Desktop PC

• PC104
• Input Output card

• Timer counter card

• AD/DA card
Computer applications

• CNC turning

• CNC milling

• Industrial robot
• Fixed wing UAV

• Rotary wing UAV

• Missile