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Anatomy and Physiology

INTRODUCTION
- Study of anatomy and physiology is an ever developing
science.
- Greek and Latin form the basis for the language of
anatomy and physiology.

DEFINITIONS:

A. ANATOMY = the study of the structure (morphology,


form) of body parts.
B. PHYSIOLOGY = the study of the function of body parts.

Anatomy dictates function!


Characteristics of Life

• Movement – change in position; motion

• Responsiveness – reaction to a change

• Growth – increase in body size; no change in


shape
• Reproduction – production of new organisms and new cells

• Respiration – obtaining oxygen; removing carbon


dioxide; releasing energy from foods
Levels of Organization

STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION:

A. The atom [i.e. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), or Oxygen(O)] is


the least complex level. An atom is defined as the smallest
particle of an element. Atoms combine with (react with) other
atoms to form...
B. molecules [i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H20)]. A
molecule is defined as a particle composed of 2 or more joined
atoms. Molecules combine with other molecules to form...
C. macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic
acids). A macromolecule is defined as a large molecule.
Macromolecules combine with other macromolecules to
form...
D. organelles (i.e. cell membrane, nucleus, ribosomes). An
organelle is defined as a small organ of a cell, which performs
a particular function. Organelles collectively compose ...
Levels of Organization

E. cells The cell is defined as the basic unit of structure and


function of living organisms!
Each cell has a set of organelles and performs a particular
function (i.e. a red blood cell has a biconcave shape and is a
nucleate. This structure increases its surface area, allowing for
the transport of more oxygen0.
Some cells have all of the machinery that they need to live.

Similar cells are arranged into...


F. tissues (i.e. epithelia, connective, muscle, nervous). A tissue
is defined as a group of similar cells that performs a
specialized function. Two or more tissues combine to form...
Levels of Organization

G. organs (i.e. skin, heart, brain). An organ is defined as a


structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a
specialized function. Two or more organs combine to form...
H. organ systems (i.e. integumentary, cardiovascular). An organ
system is defined as a group of organs that act together to
carry on a specialized function. There are 11 organ systems.
The eleven organ systems collectively form the...
I. human organism An organism is the most complex level of
organization and is defined as an individual living thing.
J. The levels of hierarchy could be further extended to include;
populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere.
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
bones
ligaments
cartilages

Major Functions:
provide framework
protect soft tissue
provide attachments for muscles
produce blood cells
store inorganic salts

Skeletal system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
skin
hair
nails
sweat glands
sebaceous glands

Major Functions:
protect tissue
regulate body temperature
support sensory receptors

Integumentary system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
muscles

Major Functions:
cause movement
maintain posture
produce body heat

Muscular system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
brain
spinal cord
nerves
sense organs

Major Functions:
detect changes
receive and interpret sensory information
stimulate muscles and glands

Nervous system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
pituitary gland
thyroid gland
parathyroid glands
adrenal glands
pancreas
ovaries
testes
pineal gland
thymus

Major Functions:
control metabolic activities of
body structures through the
release of hormones
Endocrine system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
heart
arteries
capillaries
veins

Major Functions:
move blood through vessels and
transport substances throughout
the body

Cardiovascular system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
thymus
spleen

Major Functions:
return tissue fluid to blood
carry certain absorbed food molecules
defend the body against infection

Lymphatic system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
mouth
tongue
teeth
salivary glands
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
liver and gallbladder
pancreas
small and large intestines

Major Functions:
receive, breakdown, and absorb food
eliminate unabsorbed material
Digestive system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
lungs

Major Functions:
intake and output of air
exchange gases between air and blood

Respiratory system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra

Major Functions:
remove waste from blood
maintain water and electrolyte balance
store and transport urine

Urinary system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
scrotum
testes
epididymides
ductus deferentia
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
bulbourethral glands
urethra
penis

Major Functions:
produce and maintain sperm cells
transfer sperm cells into female
reproductive tract
Male reproductive system
Levels of Organization

Major Organs:
ovaries
uterine tubes
uterus
vagina
clitoris
vulva

Major Functions:
produce and maintain eggs cells
receive sperm cells
support development of an embryo
function in the birth process

Female reproductive system


Characteristics of Life Continued

• Digestion – breakdown of food substances into


simpler forms

• Absorption – passage of substances through membranes


and into body fluids

• Circulation – movement of substances in body fluids

• Assimilation – changing of absorbed substances


into chemically different forms

• Excretion – removal of wastes produced by


metabolic reactions
Maintenance of Life

• Life depends on five (5) environmental factors:


• Water
• Food
• Oxygen
• Heat
• Pressure

• Water
- most abundant substance in body
- required for metabolic processes
- required for transport of substances
- regulates body temperature
Maintenance of Life

• Food
- provides necessary nutrients
- supplies energy
- supplies raw materials

• Oxygen (gas)
- one-fifth of air
- used to release energy from nutrients
• Heat
- form of energy
- partly controls rate of metabolic reactions

• Pressure
- application of force on an object
- atmospheric pressure – important for breathing
- hydrostatic pressure – keeps blood flowing