Anda di halaman 1dari 18

Pemantauan Lingkungan Perairan

(1)

Drs. Sapto P. Putro, MSi, PhD


Lab Ekologi & Biosistematika
Sub topics:

– Respon ekosistem thd stress


– Pengertian indikator biologi (biological indicator)
– Survey desain
Konsep kosistem

populasi
individu individu
individu individu
B A
individu komunitas
individu

individu

individu Faktor2 abiotik


C
individu
EKOSISTEM
Konsep kepadatan populasi
Imigrasi- Kompetisi
- mating & mencari sumber makanan
- Perubahan iklim/cuaca

Natalitas Kepadatan Mortalitas


-Fekunditas -kompetisi
-fertilitas -predasi
-parasitisme
Emigrasi
- kompetisi
- berkurangnya carrying capacity
- Perubahan iklim/cuaca
Respon ekosistem terhadap
gangguan/stress

 Gangguan:
1. alamibencana alam
2. aktivitas manusia: pertanian,industri,pemukiman, over-eksploitasi
SDA, konversi kawasan lindung menjadi peruntukan pembangunan dll.
 Dampak:
- hilangnya salah satu rantai makanan
- meningkatnya/menurunnya salah satu species ttt
- ketidakstabilan ekosistem
- perubahan iklim global
- pencemaran,
- degradasi fisik habitat,
- abrasi pantai/wilayah pesisir,dll
Respon ekosistem terhadap
gangguan/stress

 Komunitas disebut stabil apabila tidak terlihat


adanya perubahan jumlah populasi atau
anggota populasi (yaitu species) dalam suatu
komunitas yang dapat dideteksi equilibrium.
 Komunitas mempunyai kemampuan untuk
secara cepat atau lambat kembali ke
komunitas awalnya setelah terjadi gangguan
lingkungan  fleksibilitas (Resilience).
Biological indicators: Definitions

– Biological indicators are those organisms (or


populations) of which their occurrence, vitality
and responses change under the impact of
environmental condition (Margit Covacs, 1992)
– Biological indicators are species which can be
used by observers to determine various
conditions of environmental changes over
time.
Biological indicators: Definitions

 Biological indicators are species that are


more sensitive to certain changes in the
environment.
 In the ocean, sessile filter feeders (oysters
and mussels) can be used as biological
indicators because levels of certain proteins
change with temperature changes and
pollution content.
Biological indicators: Definitions

 Biological indicators  a numerical value(s)


derived from actual measurements, has
known statistical properties, and conveys
useful information for environmental decision
making.
 It can be a measure, an index of measures,
or a model that characterizes an ecosystem
or one of its critical components.
http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators/index.html
Biological indicators: Definitions

 Biological indicators are species that provide


an indication as to the quality of
environments based upon whether or not
they can survive in it.
http://www.iwr.msu.edu/edmodule/water/critte
r.htm
Some examples of biological
indicators of water quality: INSECTS

High Water Quality


Indicators
Some examples of biological
indicators of water quality: INSECTS

Moderate Water
Quality Indicators
Some examples of biological
indicators of water quality: INSECTS

Low Water Quality


Indicators
Some examples of biological
indicators of water quality:
MACROBENTHOS

CRUSTACEA

Flabelifera Tanaidacea
Some examples of biological
indicators of water quality:
MACROBENTHOS

 Polychaetes
120 118 116

100
91

80 75

61
60 58

44
40 35
30
23
20

0
Capitellidae Cirratulidae Lumbrineridae Nephtyidae Spionidae

Reference ST Pontoon ST
Response of macrobenthic fauna as a function
of increasing level of organic carbon: Trophic
groups
100%

90%

80%

70%
Biomasss (%)
60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
100%0.327 0.494 0.598 0.718 1.086
Suspension Feeders

80%
Abundance (%)

Surface Deposit
Feeders
60%
Sub-surface deposit
feeders
40%
Omnivores

20%
Carnivores

0%
0.327 0.494 0.598 0.718 1.086

Organic carbon (%)


Response of macrobenthic fauna as a function
of increasing level of organic carbon: Bubble
plots of the MDS
2D Stress: 0.21 2D Stress: 0.21
BC BC BP
BP
BP BP

BP BP BP RP BP BP BP RP
BC BC
BC BPBC BC BPBC
BC RP BC BC RP
BC BP RP
BP RP BPBC
BC BC
RC RC BC BP RP RC RC RP
BPRC BPBC BP RP BPRC BP BC BP RP
RP
BC BC RP BPRP BC BC BPRP
RC BC RC RP RC BC RC RP
BC BCBPBC RC BP BCRC
RC BP BC BC BCBPBC RC BP BCRC RC BP BC RP
RCRP RP RP RC RP BC
RC BC BP RC
RCRC BC RP
BP RCRC BC RP RP
RC RC RC RC RP
RPRP BP RP
RP
BC BP RP BC RC
RC RC
RCRC BP BP
RC RC RC BP
BP RC RP RC RP
RP RP
RC RP RP RC RP RP
RP (A). Capitellidae (B). Cirratulidae
RP

2D Stress: 0.21 2D Stress: 0.21


BC BP BC BP
BP BP

BP BP BP RP BP BP BP RP
BC BC
BC BPBC BC BPBC
BC BC RP BC BC RP
BP RP BP RP
RC RC BC BPBC RC RC BC BPBC
RP RP
BPRC BP BC BP RP
RP BPRC BP BC BP RP
RP
BC BC BPRP BC BC BPRP
RC BC RC RP RC BC RC RP
BC BCBPBC RC BP BCRC RC BP BC RP BC BCBPBC RC BP BCRC RC BP BC RP
RC RP BC RC RP BC
BP RC
RCRC BC RP BP RC
RCRC BC RP
RP RP
RC RC RP RC RC RP
BP RP
RP BP RP
RP
BC RC RC
RC RC BC RC RC
RC RC
BP BP BP BP
RC RP RC RP
RP RP
RC RP (C). Lumbrineridae
RP RC RP RP
RP RP
(D). Spionidae