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USB Drivers

Michael Mitchell
COP 5641 / CIS 4930
USB Device Basics
 Universal Serial Bus (USB) connects between
a computer and peripheral devices
 Created to replace various slow buses
(parallel, serial, and keyboard connections)
 USB 2.0: up to 480Mb/s (35 MB/s)
 USB 3.0: up to 6Gb/s (625 MB/s)
USB Device Basics
 A USB device can never start sending data
without first being asked by the host controller
 Single-master implementation
 Host polls various devices
 A device can request a fixed bandwidth (for audio
and video I/O)
 Universal Serial Bus is a misnomer…
 Actually a tree built out of point-to-point links
 Links are four-wire cables (ground, power, and two
signal wires)
USB Device Basics – The Protocol
 USB protocol defines a set of standards that
any device can follow
 No need to write a driver for a device that is in
a predefined class and follows that standard,
 Predefined classes: storage devices,
keyboards, mice, joysticks, network devices,
and modems
 No defined standard for video devices and
USB-to-serial devices
 A driver is needed for every device
USB Device Basics – Driver Types
 Linux supports two types of USB drivers
 Drivers on a host system
 Control the USB devices that are plugged into it
 Drivers on a device (USB gadget drivers)
 Control how that single device looks to the host
computer as a USB device

 Some hardware devices can actually be both


 Called USB OTG (On The Go),
 E.g. Android 3.0+, some printers
USB Device Basics

Different
kernel
subsystems

An interface for
USB drivers to
access HW
USB Device Basics

USB drivers bind


to interfaces, not
the device
USB Overview
 A USB device has one or more configurations
 E.g., power and bandwidth requirements
 A configuration has one or more interfaces
 E.g., audio data, knobs for speakers
 An interface has one or more settings
 Different quality of services
 E.g., different frame sizes for digital cameras
 Also zero or more endpoints
 E.g., bulk, interrupt endpoints.
Endpoints
 The most basic form of USB communication
is through an endpoint
 Unidirectional: Carries data in one direction
 From the host to device (OUT endpoint)
 From the device to the host (IN endpoint)
Endpoints
 Four endpoint types
 CONTROL
 INTERRUPT
 BULK
 ISOCHRONOUS
Endpoints
 CONTROL
 Used for configuring the device, retrieving
information and status about the device, or
sending commands to the device
 Every device has a control endpoint called
endpoint 0
 Used by USB core to configure the device at
insertion time
 Transfers are guaranteed with reserved bandwidth
Endpoints
 INTERRUPT
 Transfer small amounts of data at a fixed rate
 For USB keyboards and mice
 Also used to control the device
 Not for large transfers
 Guaranteed reserved bandwidth
Endpoints
 BULK
 Transfer large amounts of data
 No data loss
 Not time guaranteed
 A BULK packet might be split up across multiple
transfers
 Used for printers, storage, and network devices
Endpoints
 ISOCHRONOUS
 Transfer large amount of data
 For real-time data collections, A/V devices
 Unlike bulk endpoints, no guarantees (potential
data loss)
 Control and bulk endpoints are used for
asynchronous data transfers
 Interrupt and isochronous endpoints are
periodic with reserved bandwidth
Endpoints
 Endpoint information is in struct
usb_endpoint_descriptor
 embedded in struct usb_host_endpoint
 Note: defined by the USB standard, so not
Linux looking
 Some important fields
 bEndpointAddress (8-bit)
 Use USB_DIR_OUT and USB_DIR_IN bit masks
to determine the direction of data flow
Endpoints
 bmAttributes
 Type of the endpoint
 & USB_ENDPOINT_XFERTYPE_MASK to
determine if the endpoint is of type
USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_ISOC,
USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK, or
USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_INT
 wMaxPacketSize
 Maximum bytes that an endpoint can handle
 Larger transfers will be split into multiple transfers
Endpoints
 bInterval
 For interrupt endpoints, this value specifies the
milliseconds between interrupt requests for the
endpoint
Interfaces
 USB endpoints are bundled into interfaces
 A interface handles only one type of logical
connection (E.g., a mouse)
 Some devices have multiple interfaces
 E.g., a speaker
 One interface for buttons and one for audio stream
 USB interface may have alternate settings
 E.g., different settings to reserve different
amounts of bandwidth for the device
Interfaces
 Described via struct usb_interface
 Passed from USB core to USB drivers
 Some important fields
 struct usb_host_interface *altsetting
 An array of settings for this interface
 unsigned num_altsetting
 Number of alternative settings
Interfaces
 struct usb_host_interface *cur_altsetting
 A pointer into the altsetting array, denoting
the current setting
 int minor
 Minor number assigned by the USB core to the
interface
 Valid after a successful call to
usb_register_dev
Configurations
 USB interfaces are bundled into
configurations
 A USB device can have multiple
configurations
 Only one can be active at a time
 Can switch between them
 Described in struct usb_host_config
 embedded in struct usb_device
USB Webcam Device Example

endpoint endpoint endpoint endpoint


control input control input

Interface Audio Interface Audio

endpoint endpoint endpoint endpoint


control input control input

Interface Video Interface Video


Configuration
Configuration
Active Configuration
Configuration
Standby
Device
USB webcam
USB and Sysfs
 Both USB devices and its interfaces are
shown in sysfs as individual devices
 A USB mouse device can be represented as
/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:09.0/usb2/2-1

 The interface of the USB mouse device driver


is represented as
/sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:09.0/usb2/2-1/2-1:1.0

root_hub-hub_port:configuration.interface
USB and Sysfs
 For a two-level USB connection, the device
name is in the following format
root_hub-hub_port-hub_port:configuration.interface

 In the sysfs directory, all USB information is


available
 E.g., idVendor, idProduct, bMaxPower
 bConfigurationValue can be written to
change the active configuration
USB and Sysfs
 More information is available in
/proc/bus/usb directory
 User-space programs can directly
communicate with USB devices via the
directory
USB Urbs (USB Request Block)
 Communication between the host and device
is done asynchronously using USB Request
Blocks (URBs).
 Similar to packets in network communications.
 Every endpoint can handle a queue of URBs.
 Every URB has a completion handler.
 Flexible: A driver may allocate many URBs for
a single endpoint, or reuse the same URB for
different endpoints.
 See Documentation/usb/URB.txt in kernel
sources.
USB Urbs (USB Request Block)
 struct urb
 Used to send and receive data between
endpoints
 Asynchronous
 Dynamically created
 Contains reference count for garbage collection
 Designed to achieve high throughput
 Defined in <include/linux/usb.h>
 Must be created with the usb_alloc_urb()
function. Shouldn't be allocated statically or
with kmalloc().
USB Urbs (USB Request Block)
 A typical lifecycle of an Urb
 A USB device driver creates an Urb
 Assigns it to a specific endpoint of a device
 Submits it to the USB core
 The USB core submits the Urb to specific USB
host controller driver
 The USB host controller driver processes the
Urb and transfers it to the device
 Notifies the USB device driver when the Urb is
done
USB Urbs (USB Request Block)
 An Urb can be cancelled by the driver or the
USB core if the device is removed from the
system
Life Cycle of an Urb

Creation

Device Assigned USB core


driver (controller
to an endpoint driver)

Submitted Transfered
yes to the USB core to the device

can be Notification at
reused? transfer completion
no

Deletion
struct urb
 Important fields
/* destination USB device */
/* must be initialized by the USB driver before the urb can be
sent to the USB core */
struct usb_device *dev;

/* end point type information */


/* set to the return value from one of the usb send and
receive pipe functions */
/* must be initialized by the USB driver before the urb can be
sent to the USB core */
unsigned int pipe;
struct urb
/* assigned to one of the transfer flags */
unsigned int transfer_flags;

void *transfer_buffer; /* points to a kmalloced buffer */


dma_addr_t transfer_dma; /* buffer for DMA transfers */

/* buffer length for either the transfer_buffer or the


transfer_dma variable, 0 if neither buffers are used */
int transfer_buffer_length;

/* pointer to a setup packet for a control urb */


/* transferred before the data in the transfer buffer */
unsigned char *setup_packet;

/* DMA buffer for the setup packet for a control urb */


dma_addr_t setup_dma;
struct urb
/* pointer to the completion handler called by USB core */
usb_complete_t complete;

/* pointer to a data blob that can be set by the USB driver */


void *context;

/* actual length of data sent/received by the urb */


int actual_length;

/* accessed in the completion handler */


/* see status values */
int status;

/* the initial frame number for isochronous transfers */


int start_frame;
struct urb
/* polling interval for the urb */
/* valid only for interrupt or isochronous urbs */
/* for slow devices, the unit is in frames or milliseconds */
/* for other devices, the unit is in 1/8 milliseconds */
int interval;

/* the number of isochronous transfer buffers handled by this


urb */
/* must be set by the USB driver before the urb is sent to the
USB core */
int number_of_packets;

/* number of isochronous transfers with errors */


int error_count;
struct urb
/* allows a single urb to define a number of isochronous
transfers at once */
struct usb_iso_packet_descriptor iso_frame_desc[0];

struct usb_iso_packet_descriptor {
unsigned int offset; /* byte into the transfer buffer */
unsigned int length; /* length of the transfer buffer */

/* length of data received into the transfer buffer */


unsigned int actual_length;
unsigned int status; /* see status values */
};
USB send and receive pipe functions
/* specifies a control OUT endpoint for the specified USB
device with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_sndctrlpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);

/* specifies a control IN endpoint for the specified USB


device with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_rcvctrlpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);

/* specifies a bulk OUT endpoint for the specified USB device


with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_sndbulkpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);
USB send and receive pipe functions
/* specifies a bulk IN endpoint for the specified USB device
with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_rcvbulkpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);
/* specifies a interrupt OUT endpoint for the specified USB
device with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_sndintpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);

/* specifies a interrupt IN endpoint for the specified USB


device with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_rcvintpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);
USB send and receive pipe functions
/* specifies a isochronous OUT endpoint for the specified USB
device with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_sndisocpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);

/* specifies a isochronous IN endpoint for the specified USB


device with the specified endpoint number */
unsigned int usb_rcvisocpipe(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int endpoint);
URB Transfer flags
 URB_SHORT_NOT_OK
 Partial read should be treated as an error by
the USB core
 URB_ISO_ASAP
 If the driver wants the isochronous urb to be
scheduled as soon as bandwidth allows
 Set the start_frame variable
URB Transfer flags
 URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP
 Set when the urb contains a DMA buffer to be
transferred
 Tells the USB core to use the buffer pointed
by the transfer_dma pointer, not the
transfer_buffer pointer
URB Transfer flags
 URB_NO_SETUP_DMA_MAP
 Used for control urbs with DMA buffer already
set up
 Tells the USB core to use the buffer pointed
by the setup_dma pointer instead of the
setup_packet pointer
 URB_ASYNC_UNLINK
 Tells usb_unlink_urb() to return
immediate and unlink the urb in the
background
URB Transfer flags
 URB_NO_FSBR
 For UHCI USB host controller
 Generally not used
 URB_ZERO_PACKET
 Tells a bulk out urb finishes by sending an
empty packet when the data is aligned to an
endpoint packet boundary
URB Transfer flags
 URB_NO_INTERRUPT
 Indicates that the HW may not generate an
interrupt when the urb is finished
 Used when queuing multiple urbs to the same
endpoint
 Used by USB core to perform DMA transfers
URB Status Values
0
 The urb transfer was successful
 For isochronous urbs, only indicates whether
the urb has been unlinked
 Detailed status in iso_frame_desc
 -ENOENT
 Urb stopped by usb_kill_urb
 -ECONNRESET
 Urb was unlinked by usb_unlink_urb
 transfer_flags set to URB_ASYNC_UNLINK
URB Status Values
 -EINPROGRESS
 Urb still being processed by the USB host
controller
 A bug if seen at the driver level
 -EPROTO (a HW problem)
 A bitstuff error happened during the transfer
 No response packet was received
 -EILSEQ (a HW problem)
 CRC mismatch
URB Status Values
 -EPIPE
 The endpoint is now stalled
 If not a control endpoint, can clear this error
with usb_clear_halt
 -ECOMM
 Data received faster than it could be written to
system memory
 -ENOSR
 Data cannot be retrieved from the system
memory during the transfer fast enough to
keep up with the requested USB data rate
URB Status Values
 -EOVERFLOW (a HW problem)
 When the endpoint receives more data than
the specified max
 -EREMOTEIO
 Full amount of data was not received
 Occurs when the URB_SHORT_NOT_OK is set
 -ENODEV
 The USB device is gone from the system
URB Status Values
 -ESHUTDOWN
 Host controller driver has been disabled or
disconnected
 Urb was submitted after the device was
removed
 Configuration change while the urb was
submitted
URB Status Values
 -EXDEV
 Only for a isochronous urb
 Transfer was partially completed
 -EINVAL
 ISO madness, if this happens: Log off and go
home
 Incorrect function parameter
Creating and Destroying Urbs
 All URBs need to be created dynamically
 Or the reference count would not work
 To create a URB, call
struct urb *usb_alloc_urb(int iso_packets,
gfp_t mem_flags);

 Returns pointer to the URB or NULL on failure


 iso_packets: number of isochronous
packets this urb should contain
 mem_flags: same as kmalloc flags
 To destroy a urb, call
void usb_free_urb(struct urb *urb);
Interrupt urbs
 To initialize an interrupt urb, call
void
usb_fill_int_urb(struct urb *urb, struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int pipe, void *transfer_buffer,
int buffer_length, usb_complete_t complete,
void *context, int interval);

 urb: a pointer to the urb to be initialized


 dev: The destination USB device
 pipe: the destination endpoint of this urb
Interrupt urbs
 transfer_buffer: a pointer to a
kmalloced buffer
 buffer_length: the length of the transfer
buffer
 complete: pointer to the completion handler
 context: pointer to the blob, retrieved by the
completion handler function
 interval: scheduling interval for this urb
Bulk urbs
 To initialize an bulk urb, call
void
usb_fill_bulk_urb(struct urb *urb, struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int pipe, void *transfer_buffer,
int buffer_length, usb_complete_t complete,
void *context);

 Similar to interrupt urb initialization


 Exception: No final interval parameter
Control urbs
 To initialize a control urb, call
void
usb_fill_control_urb(struct urb *urb, struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int pipe,
unsigned char *setup_packet,
void *transfer_buffer, int buffer_length,
usb_complete_t complete, void *context);

 Similar to bulk urb initialization


 setup_packet: points to the setup packet data
 Also, does not set the transfer_flags
Isochronous urbs
 Have no initialization functions
 Need to be initialized by hand
/* from /drivers/media/video/usbvideo/konicawc.c */
urb->dev = dev;
urb->context = uvd;
urb->pipe = usb_rcvisocpipe(dev, uvd->video_endp - 1);
urb->interval = 1;
urb->transfer_flags = URB_ISO_ASAP;
urb->transfer_buffer = cam->sts_buf[i];
urb->complete = konicawc_isoc_irq;
urb->number_of_packets = FRAMES_PER_DESC;
urb->transfer_buffer_length = FRAMES_PER_DESC;
for (j=0; j < FRAMES_PER_DESC; j++) {
urb->iso_frame_desc[j].offset = j;
urb->iso_frame_desc[j].length = 1;
}
Submitting Urbs
 To send a urb to the USB core, call
int usb_submit_urb(struct urb *urb, gfp_t mem_flags);

 urb: a pointer to the urb


 mem_flags: same as kmalloc flags
 GTP_KERNEL, GFP_ATOMIC, etc.
 Should not access a submitted urb until the
complete function is called
Completing Urbs: The Completion
Callback Handler
 Called exactly once when the urb is
completed
 When this function is called, the USB core is
finished with the urb, and control is returned to
the device driver
Completing Urbs: The Completion
Callback Handler
 The completion handler is called under three
conditions
 The urb is successfully sent to the device and
acknowledged
 An error has occurred
 Check the status variable
 The urb was unlinked (the submission was
cancelled) when a device is removed from the
system
Canceling Urbs
 To stop a submitted urb, call
int usb_kill_urb(struct urb *urb);

 Used when the device is disconnected from


the system
int usb_unlink_urb(struct urb *urb);

 Tells the USB core to stop an urb


 Returns before the urb is fully stopped
 Useful while in an interrupt handler
 Requires setting the URB_ASYNC_UNLINK
Actually writing a USB Driver
 Similar to a pci_driver
 Driver registers its driver object with the USB
subsystem
 Later uses vendor and device identifiers to tell
if its hardware has been installed
What Devices Does the Driver
Support?
 struct usb_device_id lists supported
types of USB devices
 Important fields
 __u16 match_flags
 Determines which fields in the structure the
device should be matched against
 Check include/linux/mod_devicetable.h
 __u16 idVendor
 __u16 idProduct
What Devices Does the Driver
Support?
 __u16 bcdDevice_lo
 __u16 bcdDevice_hi
 Define low and high ends of the range of the
vendor-assigned product version number
 Expressed in binary-coded decimal (BCD)
 __u8 bDeviceClass
 __u8 bDeviceSubClass
 __u8 bDeviceProtocol
 Define the class, subclass, and protocol of the
device
What Devices Does the Driver
Support?
 __u8 bInterfaceClass
 __u8 bInterfaceSubClass
 __u8 bInterfaceProtocol
 Class, subclass, and protocol of the individual
interface
 kernel_ulong_t driver_info
 Used to differentiate different devices in the probe
callback function
What Devices Does the Driver
Support?
 To initialize usb_device_id, use the
following macros
USB_DEVICE(vendor, product)
 Creates a usb_device_id that can be used to
match only the specified vendor and product IDs
USB_DEVICE_VER(vendor, product, lo, hi)
 Creates a usb_device_id that can be used to
match only the specified vendor and product IDs
within a version range
USB_DEVICE_INFO(class, subclass, protocol)
 Creates a usb_device_id that can be used to
match a specific class of USB devices
What Devices Does the Driver
Support?
USB_INTERFACE_INFO(class, subclass, protocol)
 Creates a usb_device_id that can be used to
match a specific class of USB interfaces
 Example
/* table of devices that work with this driver */
static struct usb_device_id skel_table[] = {
{ USB_DEVICE(USB_SKEL_VENDOR_ID, USB_SKEL_PRODUCT_ID) },
{ } /* Terminating entry */
};

/* allow user-space tools to figure out what devices this


driver can control */
MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(usb, skel_table);
Registering a USB Driver
 The main structure for a USB driver is
struct usb_driver
 Important fields
 struct module *owner
 Set to THIS_MODULE to track the reference count
of the module owning this driver
 const char *name

 Points to a unique driver name


Registering a USB Driver
 const struct usb_device_id *id_table

 Pointer to the list of supported USB devices


 If you want your driver always be called for every
USB device, create an entry that sets only the
driver_info field
static struct usb_device_id usb_ids[] = {
{.driver_info = 42},
{ }
};
Registering a USB Driver
 int (*probe) (struct usb_interface *intf,
const struct usb_device_id *id)
 Called when the USB core thinks it has a struct
usb_interface that this driver can handle
 The USB driver should initialize the usb interface
and return 0, or return a negative error number on
failure
 void (*disconnect) (struct usb_interface *intf)
 Called when the usb_interface has been
removed from the system, or when the driver is
being unloaded
Registering a USB Driver
 To create a struct usb_driver, only five
fields need to be initialized
static struct usb_driver skel_driver = {
.owner = THIS_MODULE,
.name = "skeleton",
.id_table = skel_table,
.probe = skel_probe,
.disconnect = skel_disconnect,
};
Registering a USB Driver
 To register a USB driver call
usb_register_driver
 Example
static int __init usb_skel_init(void) {
int result;

/* register this driver with the USB subsystem */


result = usb_register(&skel_driver);
if (result)
err("usb_register failed. Error number %d", result);
return result;
}
Registering a USB Driver
 To unload a USB driver call
usb_deregister
 Example
static void __exit usb_skel_exit(void) {
/* deregister this driver with the USB subsystem */
/* invokes disconnect() within usb_deregister() */
usb_deregister(&skel_driver);
}
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
 Called in the context of the USB hub kernel
thread
 Sleep is allowed
 However, should do most of the work when
the device is opened by a user
 USB core handles addition and removal of USB
devices in a single thread
 A slow device driver can slow down USB device
detection
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
 Probe function should
 Initialize local structures that it might use to
manage the USB device
 Save any information that it needs to the local
structure
 Detect endpoint address and buffer sizes
 Example usb/usb-skeleton.c
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
static int skel_prob(struct usb_interface *interface,
const struct usb_device_id *id) {
struct usb_skel *dev = NULL;
struct usb_host_interface *iface_desc;
struct usb_endpoint_descriptor *endpoint;
size_t buffer_size;
int i;
int retval = -ENOMEM;

dev = kmalloc(sizeof(struct usb_skel), GFP_KERNEL);


if (dev == NULL) {
err(“Out of memory”);
goto error;
}
memset(dev, 0x00, sizeof(*dev));
kref_init(&dev->kref);
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
dev->udev = usb_get_dev(interface_to_usbdev(interface));
dev->interface = interface;

/* set up the endpoint information */


/* use only the first bulk-in and bulk-out endpoints */
iface_desc = interface->cur_altsetting;
for (i = 0; i < iface_desc->desc.bNumEndpoints; ++i) {
endpoint = &iface_desc->endpoint[i].desc;

if (!dev->bulk_in_endpointAddr &&
(endpoint->bEndpointAddress & USB_DIR_IN) &&
((endpoint->bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_XFERTYPE_MASK)
== USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK)) {
/* we found a bulk in endpoint */
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
/* we found a bulk in endpoint */
buffer_size = endpoint->wMaxPacketSize;
dev->bulk_in_size = buffer_size;
dev->bulk_in_endpointAddr = endpoint->bEndpointAddress;
dev->bulk_in_buffer = kmalloc(buffer_size, GFP_KERNEL);
if (!dev->bulk_in_buffer) {
err("Could not allocate bulk_in_buffer");
goto error;
}
}

if (!dev->bulk_out_endpointAddr &&
!(endpoint->bEndpointAddress & USB_DIR_IN) &&
((endpoint->bmAttributes & USB_ENDPOINT_XFERTYPE_MASK)
== USB_ENDPOINT_XFER_BULK)) {
/* we found a bulk out endpoint */
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
/* we found a bulk out endpoint */
dev->bulk_out_endpointAddr = endpoint->bEndpointAddress;
}
}

if (!(dev->bulk_in_endpointAddr &&
dev->bulk_out_endpointAddr)) {
err("Could not find both bulk-in and bulk-out endpoints");
goto error;
}

/* save our data pointer in this interface device */


usb_set_intfdata(interface, dev);

Use usb_get_intfdata(interface)
to retrieve dev
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
/* we can register the device now, as it is ready */
retval = usb_register_dev(interface, &skel_class);
if (retval) {
err(“Not able to get a minor for this device.”);
usb_set_intfdata(interface, NULL);
goto error; Need to call
} usb_register_dev()
return 0; instead of
error: usb_register() for
if (dev) input, tty, video USB
kref_put(&dev->kref, skel_delete); devices that are not
associated with
return retval;
predefined types
}
Call usb_put_dev(),
free bulk_in_buffer
and dev
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
 The definition of skel_class
static struct usb_class_driver skel_class = {
.name = "usb/skel%d",
.fops = &skel_fops,
.mode = S_IFCHR|S_IRUSR|S_IWUSR|S_IRGRP|S_IWGRP|S_IROTH,
.minor_base = USB_SKEL_MINOR_BASE,
};
The start of the
 The definition of skel_fops assigned minor
static struct file_operations skel_fops = { range for this
.owner = THIS_MODULE, driver
.read = skel_read,
.write = skel_write,
.open = skel_open,
.release = skel_release,
};
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
 The disconnect function
static void skel_disconnect(struct usb_interface *interface) {
struct usb_skel *dev;
int minor = interface->minor;

/* prevent skel_open() from racing skel_disconnect() */


lock_kernel();
The big
dev = usb_get_intfdata(interface);
kernel lock
usb_set_intfdata(interface, NULL);

/* give back our minor */ All in-transit urbs are


usb_deregister_dev(interface, &skel_class); canceled by the
unlock_kernel(); USB core before
disconnect() is
/* decrement our usage count */ called; no need to
kref_put(&dev->kref, skel_delete); call
usb_kill_urb()
}
Submitting and Controlling an Urb
static ssize_t skel_write(struct file *file,
const char __user *user_buffer,
size_t count, loff_t *ppos) {
struct usb_skel *dev;
int retval = 0;
struct urb *urb = NULL; Initialized in
char *buf = NULL; skel_open()

if (count == 0) goto exit;


dev = (struct usb_skel *)file->private_data;

/* create a urb and its buffer; copy the data to the urb */
urb = usb_alloc_urb(0, GFP_KERNEL);
if (!urb) {
retval = -ENOMEM;
goto error;
}
Submitting and Controlling an Urb
buf = usb_buffer_alloc(dev->udev, count, GFP_KERNEL,
&urb->transfer_dma);
if (!buf) {
retval = -ENOMEM;
goto error;
}
if (copy_from_user(buf, user_buffer, count)) {
retval = -EFAULT;
goto error;
}

/* initialize the urb properly */


usb_fill_bulk_urb(urb, dev->udev,
usb_sndbulkpipe(dev->udev, dev->bulk_out_endpointAddr),
buf, count, skel_write_bulk_callback, dev);
urb->transfer_flags |= URB_NO_TRANSFER_DMA_MAP;
Submitting and Controlling an Urb
/* send the data out the bulk port */
retval = usb_submit_urb(urb, GFP_KERNEL);
if (retval) {
err("%s - failed submitting write urb, error %d",
__FUNCTION__, retval);
goto error;
}

/* release our reference to this urb, the USB core will


eventually free it entirely */
usb_free_urb(urb);

exit:
return count;
Submitting and Controlling an Urb
error:
usb_buffer_free(dev->udev, count, buf, urb->transfer_dma);
usb_free_urb(urb);
kfree(buf);
return retval;
}
Probe and Disconnect in Detail
 The callback (complete) function
static void skel_write_bulk_callback(struct urb *urb,
struct pt_regs *regs) {
/* in interrupt context */
/* sync/async unlink faults aren't errors */
if (urb->status && !(urb->status == -ENOENT ||
urb->status == -ECONNRESET ||
urb->status == -ESHUTDOWN)) {
dbg("%s - nonzero write bulk status received: %d",
__FUNCTION__, urb->status);
}

/* free up our allocated buffer */


usb_buffer_free(urb->dev, urb->transfer_buffer_length,
urb->transfer_buffer, urb->transfer_dma);
}
USB Transfers Without Urbs
 usb_bulk_msg
 Creates a USB bulk urb and sends it to the
specified device
 Waits for it to complete before returning to the
caller
int usb_bulk_msg(struct usb_device *usb_dev,
unsigned int pipe, void *data, int len,
int *actual_length, int timeout);

 timeout
 in jiffies
 Set to 0 to wait until the message to complete
USB Transfers Without Urbs
 Exceptions:
 Cannot be called from within interrupt context
 Cannot be called with a spinlock held
 Cannot be cancelled by any other function
 The disconnect call needs to wait for
usb_bulk_msg to complete before allowing
itself to be unloaded
USB Transfers Without Urbs
 Example
static ssize_t skel_read(struct file *file,
char __user *buffer, size_t count,
loff_t *ppos) {
struct usb_skel *dev;
int retval = 0;

dev = (struct usb_skel *)file->private_data;

/* do a blocking bulk read to get data from the device */


retval = usb_bulk_msg(dev->udev,
usb_rcvbulkpipe(dev->udev, dev->bulk_in_endpointAddr),
dev->bulk_in_buffer, min(dev->bulk_in_size, count),
&count, HZ*10);
USB Transfers Without Urbs
/* if successful read, copy the data to user space */
if (!retval) {
if (copy_to_user(buffer, dev->bulk_in_buffer, count))
retval = -EFAULT;
else
retval = count;
}
return retval;
}
usb_control_msg
 Works just like the usb_bulk_msg
 Allows a driver to send and receive USB
control messages
int usb_control_msg(struct usb_device *dev,
unsigned int pipe, __u8 request,
__u8 requesttype, __u16 value,
__u16 index, void *data, __u16 size,
int timeout);

 Returns the number of bytes transferred on


success, or a negative error number
 Same restrictions as usb_bulk_msg
Other USB Data Functions
 Cannot be called from within interrupt context
or with a spinlock held

int usb_get_descriptor(struct usb_device *dev,


unsigned char type,
unsigned char index,
void *buf, int size);

int usb_get_string(struct usb_device *dev,


unsigned short langid, unsigned char index,
void *buf, int size);