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(exercise physiology)

RESPIRATION DURING
EXERCISE
Dr. Rabia Iqbal
RESPIRATION
•the word “respiration” has two definitions in
physiology
1.PULMONARY RESPIRATION: pulmonary
respration refers to ventilation (breathing) and
exchange of gases in the lungs.
2.CELLULAR RESPIRATION:refers to
oxygen utilization and CO2 production by the
tissues.
--usually repiration in text is used as a
synonym for pulmonary respiration.
FUNCTIONS OF THE LUNG
1.The primary function of the lung is to
provide a means of gas exchange b/w the
environment and body.Gas exchange occurs
as a result of ventilation and diffusion.
2.repiratory system plays an important role
in the regulation of the acid-base balance
during exercise.
• VENTILATION: mechanical process of
moving air into and out of the lungs.
• DIFFUSION: random movement of
molecules from an area of high
concentration to an area of lower
concentration.
structure of the respiratory system
• human respiratory system consist of a
group of passeges that filter air and
transport it into the lungs where gas
exchange occurs within microscopic sacs
called alveoli.
• COMPONENTS OF RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM: nasal cavity,pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchial tree and lungs
themselves.
•PLEURA: both lungs are enclosed by a set
of membranes called pleura.
•two layers:
1.PARIETAL PLEURA: lines the thoracic
wall and diaphragm.
2.VISCERAL PLEURA: adheres to the outer
surface of the lung.
---these two pleura are separated by a thin
layer of fluid acts as lubricant.
•interpleural pressure is less than
atmospheric pressure--- causing lungs to
inflate.
ZONES OF RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
•the passage of the airway is divided into
two functional zones
1.conducting zone(air passes through)
2.respiratory zone( where gas exchange
occurs)
CONDUCTING ZONE
• not only serves as passage but also
humidify and filter the air passing through
it,making it humidified and warm.
• this serves to protect body temperature
and prevents the delicate lung tissue from
desiccation(drying out)
• the filteration and cleaning of air is
achieved via two principal means:
1.first,mucus secreted by the cells of
conducting zone,traps small ,inhaled particles
.mucus is moved toward oral cavity via wave
like fashion movement of cilia.which propels
the mucus at a rate of 1 to 2 centimeters per
minute.
2.2nd,by action of cells called macrophages
that reside primarily in alveoli.macrophages
engulf foreign bodies.
_the cleansing action of both hindered by
cigarette smoke and certain types of air
pollution.
fig
• a
RESPIRATORY ZONE
• gas exchange occurs across about 30
million tiny (0.25-0.50 mm diameter)
alveoli.
• larger surface area for diffusion
• estimated total surface area for diffusion
of gases in human lung is 60-80 square
meter or about the size of the tennis court.
• total blood-gas barrier is only two cell
layers thick (alveolar cell and capillary
cell)-- assist rate of diffusion.
• SURFACTANT: a material synthesized and
released by type 2 alveolar cells.which
lowers the surface tension of the alveoli
and thus prevents their collapse.
fig
fig
MECHANISM OF BREATHING.
• movement of air from environment to the
lungs is called pulmonary ventilation and
occur via process known as BULK FLOW
• BULK FLOW refers to the movement of
the molecules along a passage way due to
a pressure difference b/w two ends of the
passage way.
INSPIRATION
• the major muscle of respiration is
disphragm . air enters the pulmonary
system due to intrapulmonary pressure
being reduced below atmospheric
pressure(bulk flow).
EXPIRATION
• at rest,expiration is passive. however,
during exercise expiration becomes active
using muscles located in the abdominal
wall ( e.g. rectus abdominus and internal
oblique)
AIRWAY RESISTANCE
• mathematically can be defined as
• air flow= p 2 - p 1 / resistance
• where p 1 - p2 is the pressure difference at
the two ends of the airway
• resistance is the impedance to the flow of
air
• the primary factor that contributes to
airflow resistance in the pulmonary system
is the diameter of the airway.
• if the radius of a blood vessel (or airway)
is reduced by one half ,the resistance to
flow is increased sixteen times.
• on increasing the work load of breathing
,especially during exercise, pulmonary
ventilation is ten to twenty times greater
than at rest.
pulmonary ventilation
• pulmonary ventilation refers to the amount of
gas moved into and out of the lungs.
• the amount of gas moved per minute is the
product of tidal volume times breathing
frequency (tidal volume).
• pulmonary ventilation= v= v t x f
• part of each breath remains in the conducting
airway(trachea, bronchi, etc) and thus does not
participate in gas exchange.this unused
ventilation is called dead space ventilation.
• and space it occupies is known as dead space
or anatomical dead space.
•the volume of inspired gas that reaches the
respiratory zone is referred to aS alveolar
vantilation.
•thus total minute ventilation can be sub-
divided into dead space ventilation (V D and
alveolar ventilation(vA)
• V= V A - V D
PULMONARY VOLUMES AND
CAPACITIES
• Z
• pulmonary volumes
can be measured by
using spirometery.
DIFFUSION OF GASES
• According to dalton's law the total
pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the
sum of the pressures that each gas would
exert independently.
• partial pressure of each gas can be
calculated by multiplying the fractional
composition of the gas by absolute
pressure( barometric pressure)
• gas moves across the blood -gas interface
in the lung due to diffusion.
• the rate of diffusion is described by Fick's
law “ which states the volume of gas that
moves across a tissue is proportional to
the area for diffusion and the difference in
partial pressure across the membrane
,and is inversely proportional to membrane
thickness”
• rate of gas transfer=v gas
• v gas=A/T x D x (p 1 - p 2 )
•A= area
•T= thickness
•D= diffusion coefficient
•in case of lung alveolar membrane is
extremely thin and surface area is greater so
lung is ideal organ for gas exchange.
during maximal exercise ,the rate of o2
uptake and co2 output may increase 20 to
30 times.
• the amount of gas dissolved in blood
obey's Henry's law and is dependent on
the temperature of blood,partial pressure
of gas, and solubility of the gas.
• temperature during exercise does not
change a great deal and solubility remains
constant.
• so the major factor that determines the
amount of dissolved gas is partial
pressure.
BLOOD FLOW TO THE LUNGS
• The pulmonary circulation is a low
pressure system with a rate of blood flow
equal to that in the systemic circuit.
• in a standing position most of the blood
flow to the lung is distributed to the base of
the lung due to gravitational force.
• this distribution may be altered during
exercise and with a change in posture.
• during light exercise ,the blood towards
the apex (upper portion)of lung is
increased.
• supine position=uniform blood flow
• suspended upside down= increase blood
flow to the apex.
VENTILATION-PERFUSION
RELATIONSHIPS
• Efficient gas exchange between the blood
and the lung requires proper matching of
blood flow to ventilation (called ventilation-
perfusion relationships)
• the ideal ratio of ventilation to perfusion is
1.0
• because this ratio implies a perfect
matching of blood flow to ventilation.
• ventilation/perfusion ratio= v/Q
at rest
•at apex of lung
v= 0.24 lit/min
Q= 0.07 lit/min
0.24/0.07= 3.4
•at base of lung
v= 0.82 lit/min
Q= 1.29 lit/min
0.82/1.29= 0.64
• high v/Q ratio= poor ventilation
• low v/Q is also not indicative of ideal gas
exchange
• however,in most cases v/Q ratios greater
than 0.50 are adequate to meet the gas
exchange demands at rest.
effect of exercise on v/Q
• it appears that light exercise may improve
the v/Q relationships ,whereas heavy
exercise may result in a small v/Q
inequality , and thus a minor impaiment in
gas exchange.
O 2 and CO 2 transport in blood
•some oxygen and corbon dioxide are
transported as solved gases in the blood.
•the major portion of oxygen and carbon
dioxide transport via blood is done by o 2
combining with Hb and co 2 mostly
converting into bicarbonate (HCO3)
Hb and o 2 transport
•over 99 % of oxygen transported in blood is
chemically bonded with Hb is illustrated by
the s-shaped o2 - Hb dissociation curve.
•each molecule of hb can transport 4 oxygen
molecules.
•amount of oxygen transported per unit vol
of blood is dependent on conc. of hb.
oxygen-Hb dissociation curve
•deoxy-Hb + o2 oxyhemoglobin
• comination of oxygen with Hb in alveolar space is known as
loading
• while release of oxygen from Hb at tissues
is called unloading.
•loading and unloading is a reversible
reaction
factors effecting oxygen- Hb
dissociation curve
• 1.pH
• 2. temperature
• 3. 2-3 DPG (diphosphoglycerate)
pH
• strength of bond b/w oxygen and
hemoglobin is decreased due to decrease
in pH ( increased acidity)
• increases unloading of oxygen to tissues
• right shift in the curve is called bohr effect.
• during heavy exercise there may be right
shift of curve due to production of lactic
acid.
2. TEMPERATURE
• dec in temperature---> left shift of curve
• increase in temperature--> right shift
• increase temperature weakens the bond
and increases the unloading of oxygen at
tissue
• dec temperature makes bond stronger and
hinder the release of oxygen
• during exercise--> increase heat produces
causes right shift of curve
3. 2-3 DPG
• RBC does not contain any nucleus or
mitochondria
• they rely on anaerobic glycolysis for
energy to meet cell demands.
• a by-product of anaerobic glycolysis is 2-3
DGP which can combine with Hb and
decrease the affinity of Hb for oxygen
resulting in right shift of curve.
• red blood cell conc. of 2-3 DPG are
known to increase during exposure to
altitude and anemia.
• acute effects of exercise on blood 2-3
DPG levels remain controversial
• according to a study, exercise at sea level
does not increase 2-3 DPG in the RBCs
oxygen transport in muscle
• myoglobin is a oxygen binding protein
present in skeletal and cardiac muscle
fibers. (not in blood)
• myoglobin similar in structure to Hb.
• acts as a shuttle to move oxygen from the
muscle cell membrane to the mitochondria
.
• myoglobin amount is greater in slow
twitch fibers (high aerobic capacity)
• minimal amounts in fast twitch muscle
fibers
• myoglobin has greater affinity for oxygen
than Hb
• myoglobin oxygen serves as “ o2
reserve”during transition periods from rest to
exercise.
• because there is time lag b/w initiation of
m/s contraction and increased oxygen
delivery to the muscle .
CO 2 transport in blood
•transported in 3 forms
1. dissolved carbon dioxide(10%)
2. co 2 bound to Hb (20%)
3. as bicarbonate (70%)
•co2 + h2o h2co3 H
++ HCo3
ventilation and acid base balance
•respiratory control of acid-base balance involves the
regulation of blood pco2
•an increase in pulmonary ventilation causes exhalation of
additional corbon dioxide.
•which results in a reduction of blood pco2
and a lowering of hydrogen ion conc. ( increase pH)
•and vice versa
•although kidneys regulate acid-base balance but the
kidneys are not significant in the regulation of acid base
balance during exercise.bcoz blood flow is greater towards
muscles and less towards kidney.
VENTILATION AND BLOOD-GAS
RESPONSES TO EXERCISE
• ventilatory response to several types of
exercise.

• 2nd part of slides