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‡ Overview
‡ 1. Target Market Selection
‡ 2. Choosing the Mode of Entry
‡ 3. Exporting
‡ 4. Licensing
‡ 5. Franchising
‡ 6. Contract Manufacturing
‡ 7. Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
‡ 8. Cross-Border Strategic Alliances

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‡ Exhibit 9-1 A Logical Flow Model of the


Entry Decision Process
‡ Exhibit 9-2 Method for Pre-Screening
Market Opportunities: Example
‡ Exhibit 9-3 Opportunity Matrix for Henkel
in Asia Pacific

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‡ Decision Criteria for Mode of Entry


± Market Size and Growth
± Risk
± Government Regulations
± Competitive Environment
± Local Infrastructure
± Exhibit 9-4 Entry Modes and Market
Development
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‡ Company Objectives
‡ Need for Control
‡ Internal Resources, Assets, and Capabilities
‡ Flexibility
‡ Mode of Entry Choice : A Transaction Cost
Explanation

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‡ Indirect Exporting
‡ Cooperative Exporting
‡ Direct Exporting

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‡ Benefits

‡ Caveats

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‡ Benefits

‡ Caveats

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‡ Benefits
‡ Caveats
± Exhibit 9-5 Conflicting Objectives in Chinese
Joint Ventures

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‡ Drivers Behind Successful International


Joint Ventures
± Pick the Right Partner
± Establish Clear Objectives from the Beginning
± Bridge Cultural gaps
± Top Managerial Commitment and Respect
± Incremental Approach Works Best

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‡ Benefits
‡ Caveats
‡ Acquisitions (and Mergers)
‡ Greenfield Operations

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‡ Types of Strategic Alliances


± Exhibit 9-6 RISC Alliance Groups, Early 1992
± Exhibit 9-7 Cross-Border Technology-Based
Strategic Alliances
‡ The Logic Behind Strategic Alliances
± Exhibit 9-8 Generic Motives for Strategic
Alliances
± Defense, Catch-up, Remain, Restructure
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‡ Cross-Border Alliances that Succeed


± Alliances between strong and weak partners
seldom work.
± Autonomy and flexibility
± Equal ownership

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