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 What us sex discrimination?
It occurs when an individual is treated in a different way due to his/her sex.


1. Direct discrimination
It happens when, because his/her sex, someone treats and individual worse tan
another of the opposite sex who is in a similar situation.
Men must pay to enter into a nightclub, while women can go into it without
2. Indirect discrimination
It happens when a company has a particular way of working that is applied to both
sexes and is disadvantageous for individuals of a certain sex.
Staff of a local finish at 5pm instead of 3pm: women employees with caring
responsibilities are in disadvantage because they cannot collect their
children from school.
3. Harassment
It happens when an individual makes someone feel, humiliated, offended
or degrades because of his/her sex.
It also covers sexual comments or jokes, touching or assault, sending
sexual emails or putting up pornographic photos.
When an individual treats someone unfairly because he or she didn’t
tolerate sexual harassment.

4. Victimisation
It occurs when someone is treated badly because he or she has made (or
has supported someone who has made) a complaint of sex discrimination.
Why I want to talk about sexual discrimination in Science?
Sexual and gender discrimination is occurring everywhere, but I prefer to
focus on science, because I’m a girl and in the future I want to work as
scientist. I’m very interested in showing people the problems that women
have to bear.
I want to focus on discrimination in workplaces which is a great problem
among females who want to work as scientists.

Why it’s important to stop gender and sex discrimination?

1. Scientific research is more precise when gender is taken into account.
2. Women bring different points of view to research and scientific
3. More STEM professionals are required.
Learn more about it in:
The workplace gender discrimination I will focus my attention to three
different occupations: biological
scientist, because I’m very
interested in this field.

Female biological scientists with all

degrees are the 48,24% of all the
employees in this sector.

Female biological scientists with

bachelor’s degree are the 56,36%
of all the employees in this sector.

Female biological scientists with

master’s degree are the 47,71% of
all the employees in this sector.

Female biological scientists with

master’s degree are the 38,1% of
all the employees in this sector.

We can suppose that females who

earned a master and a doctorate
were less than males in 2010.

It would be a good supposition to

justify the reduction of employed
The year 2010, the
biological science
maters earned by
males were 4,485,
while masters in the
same field earned by
females were 6,183.

How is it possible
that this year the
women earned more
master degrees than
men, but the number
of female employers
with masters were
inferior to men?

Let’s try again with

doctoral masters.
The year 2010, the
biological science
doctorates earned by males
were 4,007 (it means that
the 89,34% of males which
earned a master, also
earned a doctorate).

Masters in the same field

earned by females were
only 3,564 (it means that
only the 57,64% of females
which earned a master, also
earned a doctorate).

In this occasion, men

earned a little more
doctoral degrees than
women, but, even so, the
number of female
employers who earned a
doctorate is too low.
As you can see, this fact also
happens in other fields of
500 Women Scientists
500 Women Scientists is an organization which was started by four
women and its mission is to make science open, inclusive and accessible.
The goals that the organization is trying to achieve are:
1. Allow women to develop their full potential in science.
2. Increase the scientific literacy
3. Support equality in science
500 Women Science promote the significance of science in society, support
the education and careers of all scientists and push for the divulgation of
science and the engagement with the public.
Now a days 20.000 women of STEM and supporters from more than 100
countries support 500 Women Scientists and they are trying to create an
inclusive scientific community. Also, there are Local Pods where members
meet and develop a support net and make plans based on the values of the
organization. Search more information in

If you think about important and influential scientists you may

think about Newton, Einstein or Hawking, but what about
women. Young girls need a mentor, some scientist women. In
school teachers only mention male scientists: Tales,
Pythagoras, Newton, Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo… Teachers
must get to know female scientists to inspire girls. Also
parents and classmates need to support those girls interested
in science, instead of making things difficult.