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Komunikasi Data

dan Jaringan
Materi Pendahuluan

Dr. Mohammad Mustafa


Sarinanto
Program Pasca Sarjana Ilmu Komputer
Universitas Budi Luhur - Jakarta
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Materi Perkuliahan Sesi I


 Minggu ke 1 : The Data Communications Industry
 Minggu ke 2 : Data Communications Concepts
 Minggu ke 3 : Basic Data Communication
Technology
 Minggu ke 4 : Local Area Networks (LAN)
 Minggu ke 5 : Voice Communication Concepts &
Technology
 Minggu ke 6 : Wide Area Networking (WAN)
Concepts, Architectures, and Services
 Minggu ke 7 : UTS
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Materi Perkuliahan Sesi
II
 Minggu ke 8 : Internetworking (LAN
Communications Protocols)
 Minggu ke 9 : Internetworking (Advance TCP/IP
Network Design)
 Minggu ke 10 : Data Communication Operating
Systems
 Minggu ke 11 : The Network Development Life
Cycle (NDLC)
 Minggu ke 12 :Network Management
 Minggu ke 13 : Network Security
 Minggu ke 14 : UAS
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Text Book
 James E. Goldman & Philips
T. Rawles, Applied Data
Communications : A
Busines Oriented
Approach, 4th edition, John
Wiley & Sons Inc, 2004

 Larry L. Peterson & Bruce S.


Davie, Computer Networks :
A System Approach, 2nd
edition, Morgan Kauffman,
2000
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Penilaian
 Quiz (10%)
 Tugas (20%)
 Ujian Tengah Semester (30%)
 Ujian Akhir Semester (40%)
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Tujuan Perkuliahan
Kuliah ini terdiri dari dua topik utama yang saling
mendukung yakni teknologi komunikasi data dan
jaringan komputer. Fokus teknologi komunikasi data
memberikan wawasan terhadap implementasi jaringan
komunikasi data dalam jaringan skala luas, sebagai
salah satu infrastruktur teknologi informasi penting
untuk jaringan korporat. Sedangkan fokus jaringan
komputer membahas model dan teknik implementasi
jaringan komputer.
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Tujuan Perkuliahan
 Memahami struktur industri komunikasi data dan telekomunikasi
sebagai bagian dari public services.
 Mengerti mengenai peranan standard dalam industri dan teknologi
komunikasi data.
 Mengerti konsep dasar dan teknologi komunikasi data, termasuk
komponen perangkat penting.
 Mengerti konsep dasar dan teknologi jaringan lokal (LANs) dan jaringan
luas (WANs).
 Mengerti fungsi dan struktur protokol suatu jaringan berdasarkan model
OSI dan TCP/IP.
 Memahami rancangan jaringan komputer berdasarkan protokol TCP/IP.
 Mampu menyusun model analisa dan implementasi suatu proyek
jaringan komputer berdasarkan berbagai model IPO, NDLC dll.
 Memahami manajemen operasionil suatu jaringan komputer dengan
fokus pada network management dan network security.
Jaringan dan
Pengaturan Dunia Maya
 Paradigma lama : Pengelola jaringan
adalah ‘Tukang’
 Paradigma baru : Pengelola jaringan
adalah ‘Penguasa Informasi’
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The Data
Communication
Industry
Materi Perkuliahan I
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What is Data Communications


 “The encoded transmission of data or
information via electrical, optical, or
wireless means between computers or
network processors.”
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Informasi Pada Abad 21


 Pada Pada abad 21 “knowledge” akan menjadi
sumber daya yang lebih “powerful” dibanding
kapital dan sumberdaya alam
 Munculnya Information Society dan Knowledge
Base Society
 Peran informasi, sebagai input dan sekaligus
output dari Iptek, menjadi semakin penting
dalam era knowledge-based economy
 Teknologi Informasi menjadi pilar utama dalam
pembangun peradaban manusia
Pergeseran Paradigma Teknologi Komunikasi Data
Circa 1990: Market Definition Future: Market Definition
High

High
Long Global
Price of a call

Regulatory
Distance Satellite IP-based
Operator
Services

Mobility
barriers
Wireless/
Long Cellular

Low
Low

Distance
Operator
Direct Broadcast
Local International
Long Distance Multimedia/
Fixed Line Local Fixed Broadband
Operator Line Voice

Low High Low High

Distance Bandwidth Req.


Adapted From AT Kearney

12 The paradigm shift from Price-Distance toward Mobility-Bandwidth


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Driven by the technology advancements and the sift of the user’s needs
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The New Paradigm...
3A .... Anytime, Anywhere, Anyhow

PC GSM/GPRS/CDMA
PDA e-TV

07.00 h 19.00 h 21.00 h 24.00 h


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The New Paradigm.......Convergence
3C .... Communications, Computing, and
Content 2 0 0 Skala
0 normal (million US$)
Mobile
Communications 1500

Information
Digital
1000
Fixed
500
Internet
Interactive 0
1990 2000 2010
ita Multimedia
l Inf Digit
ig i on o al
D a t rm
f o rm ati
In on
Computing Content

2000
80-an 90-an
Data/Text Voice/Sound Video

Multimedia Platform

Web/ Terrestrial Mobile/Cell


Super Internet Broadcast ular Phone
Main Frame Computer
Computer
Cluster
How to manage & control this convergence ?

communicate

do business

stay informed

get entertained
Multimedia
shop
Platform
go to the bank

get insured

Media Access Device Application

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Data Communication Business and
Service
Data
SMS
Voice Email
Music on line Browsing
Ring back tone Transaction
Push to Talk Work Collaboration Telemetering
Voice Conference
Voice mail Remote monitoring
MM messaging Imaging
MM conference
MM browsing
MM game
Video phone Video messaging
Video game
Telecommunications Online TV
Sector Video streaming

Convergence
Video
Information Media Sector
Technology
Sector
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The Data 17
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Communication
Distribution and Media
 Mobile Cellular  Web/Internet

 TV/Video
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The Data Communication
Applications (RFID)
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The Data Communication
Applications (Wireless
Communication)
Pervasive Connectivity: 20
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Wireless Technologies Will Co-


Exist
WAN MAN LAN PAN

*
3G WiMAX Wi-Fi* UWB
WCDMA RFID/
802.16 802.11 and
GPRS TAG
Real Broadband <300ft. Bluetooth
EDGE

The Result: Optimal Connectivity


*Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners.
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Indonesia Government
Policy
Information Society and
Knowledge Based Society

Education : E-Government
Human Data communication Good
-Added Value Governance E-Procurement
Resources and
-E-Literacy E-Commerce
Development ICT Industry
E-Business

Information and Communication Technology

Membangun masa depan Indonesia yang lebih aman dan


damai, lebih adil dan demokratis serta lebih sejahtera

Sumber : Sambutan Presiden dalam ICT Conference 3 Mei 2005


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The Data Communication
Industry Development
 Stackholders
 Regulation
 Standardization
 Driving Force
 Competency (HRD)
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Stackholders of the Data
Communications Industry

 The Data Communications industry has many


stakeholders with complex relationships
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The Regulatory Process


 Two tightly dependent components in a constant
and ongoing state of change are the regulatory
and carrier components.
 The regulatory component represents local,
state, and federal agencies charged with
regulating telecommunications,
 The carrier component represents companies
such as telephone and cable TV companies that
sell transmission services.
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The Regulatory Process


 This interaction is a rather formal process
of a series of proposals, also known as
tariffs.
 Tariffs are submitted to state and federal
regulatory agencies by carriers, and
rulings and approvals are issued in return
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The Regulatory Process

 Carriers and agencies interact in the


formation of tariffs.
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The Importance of Standards


 Without standards, data communications would
be nearly impossible
 Standards allow multiple vendors to
manufacture competing products that work
together effectively.
 End-users can be confident that devices will
operate as specified and will interoperate
successfully.
 Standards can have a tremendous potential
economic impact on vendors
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Technology and Standards Development

 The development of a standard generally lags


the development of the technology.
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The Standards Process


1. Recognition of the need for a standard
2. Formation of some type of committee or
task force
3. Information/recommendation gathering
phase
4. Tentative/alternative standards issued
5. Feedback on tentative/alternative standards
6. Final standards issued
7. Compliance with final standards
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Driving Forces in the
Datacomm Industry
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The Top-Down Approach

 Business needs drive solutions.


The OSI Model
 The ISO has developed a framework for
organizing networking technology and protocol
solutions known as the open systems
interconnection (OSI) network reference model.
 The OSI Model consists of a hierarchy of 7
layers that loosely group the functional
requirements for communication between two
computing devices.
The OSI Model
 The power of the OSI Model, officially known as ISO
Standard 7489, lies in its openness and flexibility.
 It can be used to organize and define protocols
involved in communicating between two computing
devices located in the same room as effectively as two
devices located on opposite sides of the world.
 It is the reference mode in the world of
telcommunications
Protocols
 A protocol is a set of rules that govern
communication between hardware and/or
software components.
 There are many well known as well as a
few obscure protocols used in
telecommunications.
OSI Model Overview
Mapping the OSI model

 The OSI model maps to the Internet model and


corresponding protocols.
The OSI model
 Network analysts literally talk in terms of the OSI model.
 When troubleshooting network problems, the network
analyst starts with the physical layer and ensures that
protocols and interfaces are operational at each layer.
 Another benefit of the OSI model is that it allows
discussion about the interconnection of two networks or
computers in common terms without dealing in
proprietary vendor jargon
Physical Layer
 responsible for the establishment,
maintenance and termination of physical
connections between communicating
devices.
 transmits and receives a stream of bits.
 no data recognition at the physical layer.
Data Link Layer
 responsible for providing protocols that deliver
reliable point-to-point connections
 organizing the bit stream into structured frames
which add addressing and error checking
information.
 Additional information added to the front of data is
called a header,
 information added to the back of data is called a
trailer.
 Data link layer protocols provide error detection,
notification, and recovery
Data Link Layer (NIC’s)
 Data-link layer frames are built within the
network interface card installed in a computer
according to the pre-determined frame layout
particular to the network architecture of the
installed network interface card.
 Network interface cards are given a unique
address in a format determined by their network
architecture.
 These addresses are usually assigned and pre-
programmed by the NIC manufacturer.
Data Link Layer – Sub Layers
 The IEEE 802 committee split the data-link layer
into two sub-layers :
 media access control or MAC sub-layer
interfaces with the physical layer and is
represented by protocols which define how the
shared local area network media is to be
accessed by the many connected computers
 logical link control or LLC sub-layer and is
represented by a single IEEE 802 protocol (IEEE
802.2).
LLC Sub-Layer
 Splitting the data-link layer into two sub-layers
offers transparency to the upper layers (network
and above) while allowing the MAC sub-layer
protocol to vary independently.
 This allows a given network operating system to
run equally well over a variety of different
network architectures as embodied in network
interface cards
Network Layer
 network layer protocols are responsible for the
establishment, maintenance, and termination of
end-to-end network links.
 Network layer protocols are required when
computers that are not physically connected to
the same LAN must communicate.
 Network layer protocols are responsible for :
 providing network layer (end-to-end) addressing
schemes and
 for enabling inter-network routing of network layer
data packets.
Network Layer (Packets v. Frames)

 The term packets is usually associated


with network layer protocols while the term
frames is usually associated with data link
layer protocols.
Transport Layer
 transport layer protocols are responsible for
providing reliability for the end-to-end network
layer connections.

 Transport layer protocols provide end-to-end error


recovery and flow control.

 Transport layer protocols also provide mechanisms


for sequentially organizing multiple network layer
packets into a coherent message.
Session Layer
 Session layer protocols are responsible for
establishing, maintaining, and terminating
sessions between user application programs.

 Sessions are interactive dialogues between


networked computers and are of particular importance
to distributed computing applications in a client/server
environment
Presentation Layer
 Presentation layer protocols provide an
interface between user applications and various
presentation-related services required by those
applications.
 For example, data encryption/decryption
protocols are considered presentation layer
protocols as are protocols that translate between
encoding schemes such as ASCII to EBCDIC
Application Layer
 include utilities and network based services that
support end-user application programs.
 the best examples of application layer protocols
are the OSI protocols X.400 and X.500.
 DNS, Domain Name Service, which is an
Internet protocol that resolves a computer's
common or domain name to a specific IP
address, is also considered an application layer
protocol
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The Top-Down Approach to
Information Systems Development

 Networking and Telecomm in the ISD context.


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Certification
 Certification as an indication of mastery of
a particular technology may be important
in some employment situations.
 There are a number of well known
certifications.
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Certification Concerns
 The amount of practical, hands-on experience
required to earn a given certification.
 The amount of continuing education and
experience required to retain a certification.
 Vendor-specific certifications do not provide the
broad background required for today’s
multivendor internetworks.
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Critical Skills for Data Communications
Professionals
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Critical Skills for Data Communications
Professionals
 Understand and can speak “business.”
 Demonstrate an ability to own and solve
business problems in a partnership rather
than consultative role.
 Demonstrate an ability to look outside their
own expertise for solutions.
 Exhibit an understanding of the need for
lifelong learning.
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Critical Skills for Data Communications
Professionals
 Demonstrate an ability to evaluate technology with a critical
eye as to cost/benefit and potential for significant business
impact.
 Understand comparative value and proper application of
available network services
 Can work effectively with carriers to see that
implementations are completed properly and cost effectively.
 Communicate effectively, verbally and orally, with both
technically oriented and management personnel.
Assignment
 Reading Chapter 1 & 2
 Cerita ttg topik yang diminati dalam
bidang TIK