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SDH

Technology

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SDH Basics

Definition of SDH
SDH STANDS FOR:
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
An international standard for high-speed
optical/electrical telecommunications networks

A synchronous digital transport system with a built-in


management channel for remote management of
complex topologies
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SDH Basics

Synchronous Multiplexer Interfaces

Tributaries

1.5 Mbit/s
2 Mbit/s
6 Mbit/s
34 Mbit/s
45 Mbit/s Aggregates
140 Mbit/s
STM-1 Elect.
STM-1 Optical STM-1 (155 Mbit/s)
STM-4 Optical
STM-4 (622 Mbit/s)
LAN / MAN
FDDI STM-16 (2.4 Gbit/s)
ISDN / BISDN STM-64 (10 Gbit/s)
ATM
Video

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SDH Basics

TERMINAL SDH Equipment ADD-AND-DROP


MULTIPLEXER
MULTIPLEXER

STM-N STM-N
E1-E4 REGENERATOR ADM
STM-N
TM

E1-E4
STM-N STM-N
REG
STM-M
STM-M

SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL ADD-AND-DROP MULTIPLEXER WITH


CROSS-CONNECT LOCAL CROSS-CONNECT CAPABILITY
E1-E4

STM-N STM-N
STM-N LXC
STM-N
SDXC

E1-E4
STM-N STM-M

STM-M
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SDH Basics

Network Topologies
RING
CHAIN

MESH

POINT-TO-POINT
STAR (HUB)

ADM / DXC

TM

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SDH Basics

Protection Schemes

Section Protection Path Protection

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SDH Basics

Network Management

Ethernet

Gateway

Site 1 Management Station

SDH
Site 2 Multiplexer Site 4
Network

Site 3

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SDH Basics

Management Functions

 Alarm/Event Management

 Configuration Management

 Performance Management

 Access and Security Management

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SDH Basics

SDH Asynchronous
Transport Transport
System System
Fiber
STM-N
Highway
2 Mbit/s
34 2 Mbit/s
Video
Mbit/s ...
2 Mbit/s

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SDH Basics

SDH Network Segments


Multiplexer Multiplexer
Section Section

Regenerato Regenerato Regenerato


r Section r Section r Section
Tributaries

Tributaries
SDH SDH SDH
Terminal Add & Drop Terminal
Multiplexer Multiplexer Multiplexer

SDH SDH
Regenerator Regenerator

VC VC
Assembly Disassembly

Path
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SDH Basics

Multiplexing Structure
139.264 Mbit/s
xN x1
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4

x3 x1
TUG-3 TU-3 VC-3
x3 44.736 Mbit/s
34.368 Mbit/s

AU-3 VC-3 C-3


x7
6.312 Mbit/s
x7 x1
TUG-2 TU-2 VC-2 C-2

C Container 2.048 Mbit/s


VC Virtual Container x3
TU Tributary Unit TU-12 VC-12 C-12
TUG Tributary Unit Group
AU Administrative Unit x4 1.544 Mbit/s
AUG Administrative Unit Group TU-11 VC-11 C-11

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SDH Basics

Signal Structure
F F N x M bytes F F

M Columns
F B B

B B

N x M bytes
1 N Rows
2 Order of
transmission

B B

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SDH Basics

STM-1 Frame Structure


9 261

1
Regenerator
Section
Overhead
(RSOH)
3
4 AU Pointer
Payload
5

Multiplexer
Section
Overhead
(MSOH)

270 Columns (Bytes)

9 rows x 270 columns x 8 bits / byte x 8000 frames / sec. = 155.52 Mbit/s
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SDH Basics

STM-1 Virtual Container (VC-4)


Serial F F F F
Signal
Stream
155.52 Mbit/s

Section
Path Overhead

9 Rows
Overhead

Payload Capacity = 149.76 Mbit/s


Designed for 140 Mbit/s transport

260 Columns
9 Bytes x
1 Column
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SDH Basics

Tributary Unit Frame Structure


Serial F F F F
Signal
Stream
155.52 Mbit/s

Section
Path Overhead

9 Rows
Overhead

STM-1
Container
Tributary Capacity
Unit Frame

260 Columns
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SDH Basics

Tributary Unit Frame Structure


Serial F F F F
Signal
Stream
155.52 Mbit/s

Section
Path Overhead

9 Rows TU Pointer
Overhead
VC Path
Overhead
Virtual
Container
Low-Rate
Tributary Container
Signal

260 Columns
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SDH Basics

Different Sizes of Tributary Unit Frames


TU-11 TU-12 TU-2 TU-3
9 rows

3 columns 4 columns 12 columns 86 columns

1.728 Mb/s 2.304 Mb/s 6.912 Mb/s 49.54 Mb/s


Optimised for Optimised for Optimised for Optimised for a N. American DS3
a N. American a European a N. American (44.736 Mb/s) signal, but will also
DS1 (1.544 2 Mb/s signal DS2 (6.312 carry a European 34.368 Mb/s
Mb/s) signal Mb/s) signal signal

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SDH Basics

TU-12 Numbering System

TU-3
3

TU-12
1-4-2
TU-2
2-4
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SDH Basics

Synchronous Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing

STM-1
SIGNAL “A”
t
STM-1
SIGNAL “B”
Byte-
Interleaved
STM-1 Multiplexer STM-4
SIGNAL “C” (4 x STM-1)

STM-1
SIGNAL “D”

DENOTES 8-BIT BYTE DENOTES 8-BIT BYTE


AT STM-1 SIGNAL RATE AT STM-4 SIGNAL RATE

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SDH Basics

STM-4 Frame Structure


Serial Signal Stream 125 usec.
STM-1 “A”
F F F
622.08 Mb/s

STM-1 “B” 9720 Bytes / Frame

9 Rows
STM-1 “C” Byte-
Interleaved
Multiplexer

STM-1 “D”
9 Rows

1044 columns
36 columns
4 Interleaved VC-4s
Interleaved
Section Overhead
9 columns 261 columns
Section VC-4
Overhead
9720 Bytes / Frame x 8 Bits / Byte x 8000 Frames / Sec. = 622.08 Mbit/s

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SDH Basics

Overhead Functions
Define and build the SDH frame structure

Provide data transportation monitoring


indicators

Provide alarm state indications

Enable maintenance activities

Provide routing functions (protection


switching)
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SDH Basics
Section Overhead (SOH) Path
Overhead
(POH)
J0 J1
A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 Reg. Sec. Path
Framing Framing Framing Framing Framing Framing Trace Trace
Regenerator
Section B1
E1
Order- F1 B3
Overhead BIP-8 wire User BIP-8

(RSOH) C2
D1 D2 D3 Signal
Datacom Datacom Datacom Label

G1
H1 H2 H3 Path
AU Pointer AU Pointer AU Pointer Status

B2 K1 K2 F2
BIP-24 MPS RDI User

H4
D4 D5 D6 Multi-
Datacom Datacom Datacom frame
Multiplexer
Section D7 D8 D9 F3
Overhead Datacom Datacom Datacom User

(MSOH)
D10 D11 D12 K3
Datacom Datacom Datacom APS

S1 E2 N1
Synch. Z1 Z2 M1 Order- Tandem
Quality Growth Growth REI wire Conn.

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SDH Basics

STM-4 Section Overhead Byte Structure

36 columns
A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0 Z0 Z0

B1 E1 F1

D1 D2 D3

Administrative Unit Pointer(s)

B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2

D4 D5 D6

D7 D8 D9

D10 D11 D12

S1 M1 E2

Bytes reserved for national use

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