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Process Mapping Training


 
 
 
 
 
 
Workshop
 
 
 
 
 
Acknowledgement

• This MAPSS Project is one of the Demonstrator projects funded


by the Department of Health’s Information for Social Care
(IfSC) initiative.
• The project would also like to thank Deloitte & Touche for their
contributions in the training materials.
Goals and Objectives

• Introduction to the project


• To understand why organisations are modelling Business Processes
• To develop a common understanding of process mapping tools and
techniques
• To understand that process mapping is a skill that will support on-
going initiatives
• To gain some experience of writing process maps
• To analyse and develop concrete suggestions for improvement and to
create a basis for future change initiatives
Introductions

• Name
• Where you work
• Current Role
• Your view of Process Mapping
• Expectations


Agenda
Morning

09:30 – 10:00 Workshop opening & Introductions


10:00 – 11:00 Module 1


11:00 – 11:15 Break


11:15 – 12:45 Module 2


12:45 – 13:00 Summary


13:00 – 14:00 Lunch



MAPSS Project - overview

• This project is one of 2 process mapping projects being supported by the Department of
Health across England.
• The objectives of the project are to:
– To deliver as set of agreed symbols for mapping social care
– Produce a public domain user guide for process mapping
– Develop public domain training materials
– Produce a range of ‘As is’ and ‘To be’ process maps
– To map cross-agency flows, inc. data flows for Caldicott purposes
– Develop a business case for national co-ordination roll out and to
– Explore options for future repository support, possibilities include SCIE,
Dept of Health and ADSS IMG. Thereby establishing a shared
knowledge base.
• The project will help to address the requirements set out in the DoH guidance note
‘Information for Social Care’ as will as helping CSSRs across London to develop
best practice approaches and benchmarking capabilities for delivering customer
focussed social services.
The project plan

Phase 1 Phase 2
Obtain funding
&
agree PID

Agree standard symbols

Refine manual
Prepare manual

Prepare Prepare
Training Day Training Day process maps
process maps

Explore repository options Develop preferred option for repository

Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar


Links with other projects

• There are 2 process mapping pathfinder projects being undertaken:


– This one
– Stockton on Tees Consortium which will concentrate on the Integrated MH
Services, mapping the ‘As is’ and ‘As if’ processes from referral to
Discharge

• The relationship between the two is the agreement to share all the
deliverables and lessons learnt from the process mapping
• Lessons learnt and findings will be disseminated and shared via the
DoH Website.
• We are linking with LEAP and IDEA to build on investments already
made
Course Outline

Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4

Introduction Building
Introduction
to Tools & Building Uses &
to Tools & Process Uses &
Process Techniques Process Applications
Process Techniques Maps Applications
Mapping Maps
Mapping

Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
Module 1
 
  Introduction to Process Mapping
 
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction Building
Introduction
to Tools & Building Uses &
  to Tools & Process Uses &
Process Techniques Process Applications
  Process Techniques Maps Applications
Mapping Maps
  Mapping
 

Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
What is a Business Process?

 A process is...
• A series of related activities that “flow” through an organisation
• Not limited to a single function or department
• Something that can be viewed from end to end

Process
Trigger Policy development Value-Added
Assessment
Input Output
Customer Service
Order Fulfilment
Application Procedure

Customer
Functional View v Process View

Functional orientation

Process orientation
Problems with Functional working

• Bottlenecks
• Repetition
• Bureaucracy
• No ownership
• Management frustration
• Too many steps
• Customer forgotten
• Opportunities for error or even corruption

From Functional to Process View

Successful re-engineering requires a shift from function to process


Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3

P P
R R Requisition to Payment C
u u
e P e P u
r r
c a c a s
c c
e y e y Contact to Cash t
h h
i m i m o
a a
v e v e m
s s
i n i n Recruit to Retire e
i i
n t n t r
n n
g g s
g g

Functions drive Processes are acknowledged, Processes drive


the business but Functions dominate the business
What is Process Mapping?

• Process mapping is a tool that is used to understand, analyse


and document processes and activities in an organisation
and assist in identifying opportunities for improvement
• A process map displays the sequential steps involved in
converting a specific input into the required output
Why Process Map?

Typical reasons for conducting process mapping include:


• To improve a process, you must understand the process


• Complexity of processes and lack of understanding constrains
management’s attempts to improve processes
• Analytical skills and process mapping skills allow us to
understand and communicate processes to management,
staff and users
• Identifies efficiency issues and where systems can support
these
Advantages of Process Mapping

Process mapping can be extremely valuable


because it can identify improvements in a number of
aspects in the work place, including:

• Increases understanding of the work process


• Provides understanding of resource allocation
• Documents training procedures
• Tracks workflow
• Increases staff awareness
The Process Framework

Continuous
Continuous Improvement
Improvement

Identify
Identifyand
and
understand
understand Analyse
Analyse&& TO-BE
TO-BE Implementati
Implementati
Best AS-IS
AS-ISDesign
Design Evaluate Design on
Best Evaluate Design on
Practices
Practices

APPROACHES
B B
P B T
I P
R
Deliverables

✔An action plan for implementation containing  
Turn TV On identified and prioritised suggestions for 
improvement.
✔Documented differences between existing work 
flow and Best Practices.
Does picture Is TV
No ✔Identified problem areas using root cause 
come on? plugged in?
analysis Yes

✔Documented existing work flow with 
No
highlighted problems.

Problem Causes
Yes Best Practices vs. existing workflow

Cross-functional process map
PROCESS

1.
1 5
Plug in TV Suggestion for improvement - Quick Fix

Problem                Solution                  Due date


Best Practice 1
POLICY                 Effect
GAP:
2.
Prioritised suggestions for improvement               Prioritised Action plans
TECHNOLOGY 3. ----------
--------
-------
-------
--------- -------
       Quick Fix     Project
--------- -------
4. x --------- -------
PEOPLE x x x -------- --------1. Automate..........
--------- -------- ---------------------------------------
Best Practice 2 5. ---------- -------- ---------------------------------------

Importance
2. Simplify........
GAP: ---------------------------------------

Call TV re
---------------------------------------

Is picture 6.
Does
x picture x x
---------------------------------------

Yes No
3. Eliminate.......
x ---------------------------------------

good? comex on?


x
man
---------------------------------------
---------------------------------------

Performance

No

Yes
Process mapping symbols

System Activity
Action/Process

Direction of Flow
End

Start or End Document


Start

On Page Connector
No

Decision
Yes
Off Page Connector
Required information for process mapping

 We need to understand the following in order to process map:



•RESPONSIBILITIES ACTIVITIES INPUTS
The key responsibilities of The key activities of The main sources of
the process area the process area data input for each activity

OUTPUTS CUSTOMERS PIs VOLUMES


The key Recipients of the Key Performance Indicators Key volumes related to
deliverables of outputs of each activity e.g. cycle time for process an activity e.g.no. of
each activity (internal & external) items produced per day
Facilitating

Prepare

• Use standard flowchart symbols


• Flow from top left to bottom right
• Bring people together who know the process to prepare
Execute

• Use group facilitated sessions with process owners


• Use individual interviews where appropriate
• Document process and technology opportunities for
improvement as you go
• Understand cost, quality and time (processing time and elapsed
time) implications as you go
Questions to ask about a processes’ activities

• Who are the customers of the process?


• Who performs each activity?
• What generates the process/task?
• What forms and reports are used?
• What computer systems and files are used?
• How do we do it? Why do we do it?
• What decisions are made in the process?
• What happens next? What sequence are the activities performed in?
• Who reviews it and when?
• How long does it take?
• What is the nature, frequency and cause of errors/problems?
• How are errors/problems/exceptions handled?
• What is the output? How many?
• Where does the output go?
Summary - Module 1

• A Business Process is a collection of linked tasks that consume inputs,


add value, and produce an output of value to an internal or
external customer
• Business processes span multiple functions or departments
• Process Mapping aims to make the process visible
• To improve a process, you must understand the process
• The continuous improvement framework helps create a value-added
outcome
• The deliverables of process mapping are essential for identifying
improvements
Module 2
 
  Process Mapping Tools & Techniques
 
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction Building
Introduction
to Tools & Building Uses &
  to Tools & Process Uses &
Process Techniques Process Applications
  Process Techniques Maps Applications
Mapping Maps
Mapping
 
 

Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
‘As-Is’ Process Design

Process mapping is a process...


Conduct
individual
interviews

Plan and
schedule Document “As-Is”
Select a resources Select process and Core team
process (process owners, Technique opportunities for reviews output
rooms, dates, times,
materials, agendas, improvement
etc..)

Connect
to redesign/
design
Conduct focus phase if
group mapping applicable
Modeling Techniques for ‘As-Is’ Process Design

• Workflow and Process Dependency Modelling


• Flowcharting
• Cross-Functional Flowcharts
Workflow/Dependency Diagram

Activity Dept A Dept B Person C


1. Set New Account Critieria
Sequential
2. Accept New Account dependency
3.Determine Requirements
Parallel
4. Allocate Manpower
dependency
5. Allocate Supplies

6. Sell Lottery tickets Repetitive


7. Select Winning Ticket
dependency

8. Announce Winning Ticket

9. Accept Credit Information Optional


dependency
10. Accept Personal
References
11. Approve/Reject Loan
 
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction
  Introduction
to Building
to Tools & Building Uses &
Process Tools & Process Uses &
  Process Techniques
Techniques
Process
Maps
Applications
Applications
  Mapping Maps
Mapping
 
 
 
Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
Workflow Modelling Exercise

 Case Management Process


 Look at the handout
• Work individually for 10 minutes
• Simplify the process using the Workflow Modelling Technique
• In the columns, add departments, customer, specific people
• In the rows, specify the activities
– Don’t afraid to be descriptive
– Keep to high level activities/processes

• Add the boxes in the appropriate columns and flows between them
Case Management Process
1st Draft

Statement of Need
Statement of Services to meet
Care need
Screen Planning
Contact Statement of services
arranged
Unmet needs

Fixed criteria Care Plan Arrange


Referral service Services

Initial Emergency Ongoing Services Provider EVENT


Assessment Service case-work Provided Monitor
intervention Services

Full
Assessment Purchaser
Monitor
Services

Review
END
Needs
SERVICE
Advantages of Workflow Modelling

• Simple to understand
• Identifies Processes
• Identifies dependencies
• Highlights the number of ‘hand-offs’
• Finds ‘black holes’
• Easy to document metrics
• Can show by person, department, geographical location etc.

Flowcharts

Start/En
d

Decisio
n Turn T
Activit
y

Does p
Cross-Functional Flowcharts - ‘Swim Lanes’

Publication Proce

Publication Proce
er
Cross-Functional Flowcharts - ‘Swim Lanes’

Hints:

• Use workshops / focus groups


• Keep things moving
• Encourage everyone to join in
• Energise, share and build
• Use Paper / ‘Brown Paper Technique’ / White Board /
Flipcharts / PC based tool (e.g. Microsoft VISIO)
Suggested steps in process mapping

• Start with a high-level flow (Context Diagram) and then drop to


the next level of detail if necessary (i.e. sub processes)
• Define the beginning and end of each sub process (stay
focused)
• Define key inputs and outputs
• Walk through each key sub process step by step
• Don't waste time: If you get bogged down, take a break or move
on to another area
• Identify process and technology opportunities for improvement
as you go or at the end of each sub process
• Verify the accuracy of the flow
Process mapping “DOs” and “DON’Ts”

• DO map the process as it actually • DON’T map the process as you


happens think it happens or as you think
• DO think about the process across it ought to happen
the entire organisation • DON’T restrict your process map to
• DO talk to the other people who are the activities in your own
involved in the process department
• DO define the beginning and end of • DON’T work in a vacuum
the process before you start • DON’T attempt to process map
• DO the process map at a high level before you identify a beginning
and an end
• DO ask questions
• DON’T get bogged down with too
• much detail
• DON’T struggle on your own
Expected results

Re-check the process by looking at the following:


• Start, end points and customers should be clear


• Inputs and outputs should be identified
• Indicate title of person / area responsible for each task
• A person not familiar with the process should be able to easily
understand the flow without any explanation
• The level of detail should be adequate to describe inefficiencies
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction
Introduction
to Building
  to Tools &
Tools &
Building
Process
Uses &
Uses &
  Process Techniques Process Applications
Process Techniques Maps Applications
  Mapping Maps
Mapping
 
 
 
  Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
A basic process mapping example - sending a fax

• In teams, spend 15 minutes drafting a process map for sending


a fax
• Use the Brown Paper Technique
A basic process mapping example - sending a fax -
Example answer

Depicts a Depicts an
Depicts a action
Sender decision point -
Depicts the step taken generated by or
always has yes/ Yes goes right
start of the by the related to the
no outputs
process actionee system

Compose
Do you want to
Start fax on Yes
save a copy? Save copy of
computer
fax to database
No goes down

No
Represents
readable data
such as
printed output
Print fax
Refers reader
to a follow-on
process map
Defines area of
responsibility
for actionee See
Send fax to Send a copy
Depicts a
Yes Process
recipient to CEO?
functional area no.2
or actionee e.g.
department
No
Recipient
Recipient
receives fax End

Depicts the
end point
of the
process
Adding Metrics

What do we want to measure?


• Time - value, cycle, waiting, Keep In View (KIV), productive / non-productive


• Volumes - transactions/day, units/hour, %
• Rates or Costs - computed, fixed, per unit
• Equipment Used - cost
• Value Added - real value, business value, no-value
P
I
s

Advantages of using Metrics


•Illustrates contribution or non-contribution of the activity
•Shows bottlenecks, idle time, productive time
•Basis for measuring success
Adding Metrics - an example

 An Insurance Company’s Metrics for their Claims Process:


 Time Taken Add. Costs Delays %
Process/KPI
(mins) (£) (days)
 Deal with call 5
Deal with Call Back Slip 10

Transfer to Supervisor 1
Update Client File 5

Send Claim Form 20 20 2
Reimburse Client 30 50 20

Average Claim Value 74


Non-rejected claims 72
Cycle Times
Non-Investigated 13

Investigated/Assessed (5%) 29
Processing Costs per claim
 Analyse the results
Non-Investigated 80 13
Investigated/Assessed 400 29
Summary - Module 2

• The As-Is process design is the most important part of the


process improvement exercise
• Modelling Techniques

• Always re-check the process


• Ask lots of questions to ensure a correct design
• Metrics and PIs are used as a basis for measuring success
Agenda
Afternoon

14:00 – 14:30 Introduction to module 3


14:30 - 15:30 case study


15:30 – 15:45 Break


15:45 – 16:15 case study continued


16:15 – 16:40 Module 4


16:40 – 17:00 Summary and Next Steps



Module 3
 
  Building Process Maps
 
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction Building
Introduction
to Tools & Building Uses &
  to Tools & Process Uses &
Process Techniques Process Applications
  Process Techniques Maps Applications
Mapping Maps
  Mapping
 

Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
Using Microsoft VISIO 2000

• An automated process mapping tool


• Templates

• Use Help files


Visio - Cross-Functional Flowchart Template
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction Building
Introduction
to Tools & Building Uses &
  to Tools & Process Uses &
Process Techniques Process Applications
  Process Techniques Maps Applications
Mapping Maps
  Mapping
 
 
 
  Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
Your task ...

• Choose a process you are familiar with in the workplace


• Map the process using the Cross-Functional Flowchart Method
(Swim Lanes)
• Re-check the process
• Analyse the results
• List some problems and improvements

Using VISIO 2000

• Use the process you have mapped by hand


• Transfer this process into a Visio document
• Use the Cross-Functional Flowchart template

Summary - Module 3

• Microsoft VISIO 2000 is a valuable tool for automating and


documenting various design techniques
• Process Mapping takes practice
• The process maps act as a basis for the Analysis and
Evaluation phase
Module 4
  Uses and Applications of Process Maps
 
 
 
  Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4
 
  Introduction Building
Introduction
to Tools & Building Uses &
  to Tools & Process Uses &
Process Techniques Process Applications
  Process Techniques Maps Applications
Mapping Maps
  Mapping
 
 
Practical 1 Practical 3

Practical 2
Identify opportunities for improvement

During process mapping we should go beyond


understanding the current flow to identifying areas for
improvement, such as:

• Process opportunities
• Technology opportunities and issues
• Short-term fixes or urgent action items

Identify opportunities for improvement
Process opportunities

Once we have our process maps, we can begin to analyse them for
process opportunities for improvement.
Specifically, we can improve the work flow by using the following
analysis techniques:

• Value Chain Analysis


• Why-Why Diagram
• Cause and Effect Diagram
• Critical Analysis
Value Chain Analysis

Real value added


The ‘value’ that is (RAV)
added to the required Business value added
deliverable by each (BAV)
stage of the process. Non value added
(NAV)
Verbs which are likely to have no business value:
– Copying –Checking
– Collating
– Counting –Approving
– Preparing –Storing
– Searching –Filing
– Accumulating –Retrieving
– Revising –Moving
– Editing
–Inspecting
–Rework
Value Chain Analysis - ‘Red Flag’

• Loops
• Hand-offs
• Repetition/Duplication of effort (within a process or across divisions)
• Black holes
• Unused data stores
• Temporary data stores
• Overlapping processes WHY
• Processes which have many steps ?
• Sequential steps which could be done in parallel
• Omission of critical steps
• Unnecessary paperwork
• Unnecessary delays
• Insufficient linkages between other processes, divisions,
customers or suppliers
Why-Why Diagram
Wh
Wh
y? Wh y?
y?

Wh
y?
Cause and Effect Diagram

O
Effect,
Problem
or
Objective

Infl
Housemates
Critical Analysis

What Why What Else


is being done is it being done is being done
Who Why Who Else
is doing it are they doing it could do it
When Why When Else
Are they doing it then could it be done
Where Why Where Else
Is it being done there could it be done
How Why How Else
is it being done that way could it be done
Visio - Fishbone Diagrams
‘To-Be’ Design

Customer
Needs & Executive
Executive
Wants Vision
Vision

Opportunities
Opportunities Implementation
Implementation
Visioning
from
from ‘As-Is’
‘As-Is’ &
& Change
Change
Workshops
Analysis
Analysis Planning
Planning

Best
Best Practices
Practices
Experts
Experts
Benchmarks
Benchmarks
Goals
Goals
PIs
PIs
Design Principles

• Work Backwards
• See the business through the customers eyes
• Focus on the logical workflow first
• ‘What’ first, then who, where, when and how
• Look at I.T. as an enabler
• Assume ‘Paradise Principle’ to start with
• Minimise hand-offs
• Use ‘Triage’ principle
• Integrate tasks / activities
• Place decision making close to the customer / transfer
• Simplify
• Test using PIs and metrics
• Have a single point of contact - Ownership
Identify opportunities for improvement
Technology opportunities and issues

During the process mapping we will capture current


system limitations as well as ideas for ways technology
can enable a more effective or efficient process:

• Identify potential uses for new technology (e.g. automation,


better availability and sharing of information, etc.)
• Understand current system constraints (e.g. information not
available on a timely basis due to batch processing,
hardware capacity constraints, lack of interface between key
systems, etc.)
Identify opportunities for improvement
Short term fixes or urgent action items

Once we have our process maps, we can begin to analyse them for
“Quick-wins”. These opportunities represent…

• Issues that need to be addressed immediately for control, improved profitability


and other reasons
• Significant benefit with relatively low investment required

Prioritised suggestions for improvement

x x x
x
Importance

x x x
x
x x
Ease of implementation
Summary - Module 4

• Process Mapping and Analysis identifies critical problems that


need to be resolved
• Business processes are re-designed to achieve ambitious
business goals
• Business Value is added
• Quick Win projects are identified
• Improvement Opportunities are identified
• I.T. is used as an enabler for competitive advantage
• The investment is justified using metrics and PIs
Next Steps

• Prioritise the main processes you have identified


• Process map at least one of them by the end of Week 1
(or continue to work on the one you have started)
• Start of with the high-level process (Context Diagram)
• Decompose this process into sub-processes
• Don’t hesitate to ask for Help.