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INVERSE

LAPLACE
TRANSFORM
Since Laplace transform is
defined by

L f  t   F  s 
then the inverse Laplace
transform is denoted by

f  t   L F  s  
1

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OBTAINING THE
INVERSE LAPLACE
TRANSFORM DIRECTLY
FROM THE
TABLE OF LAPLACE
TRANSFORM

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The table of
Laplace transform
is given as follow:

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EXAMPLE 1
Determine the By definition
inverse of
f  t   L F  s  
1
2
F s  3 1  n! 
s f  t   L  n 1 
s 
1 
2
f t  L  3 
s 
 f t   t 2
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EXAMPLE 2
Determine the inverse of

s 1
F s  2
s 1

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1  s 1 
f t   L  2 
 s  1
1 s  1  1 
L  2 L  2 
 s  1  s  1

 f  t   cos t  sin t
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If it can’t be find the Laplace transform
directly from the table of Laplace
transform , other methods have to
apply. They are :

1. The Completing of Squares

Method
2. Partial Fraction Method
3. Convolution Theorem
Method
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COMPLETING THE SQUARES
METHOD
• In general, a quadratic expression cannot be
written in the form of (***)^2 and hence, will
not be a perfect square.
• The “completing the square” method enable
us to write the quadratic expression as a
perfect square plus minus some constant as
an equivalent.

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EXAMPLE 3
Determine the inverse of
2s  3
F s  2
s  6s  13

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We settle the 2
denominator first:
s  6s  13

Extract the values: a  1 , b  6 , c  13


Find the perfect square plus/minus some
constant by using the formula below:

2
 b   b  4ac 
2
 a x     
 2 a   4a 

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2
 6   6  4(1)(13) 
 2
 s   
 2    4 

  s  3  13  9
2

  s  3  4
2

  s  3  2
2 2

Hence, we can write


1  2s  3   2s  3 
1 
L  2 L  2
 s  6s  13    s  3  2 
2
 2s  3 
1
(1) From
L  2
previous slide,
  s  3  2 
2
we obtain

1  2( s  3)  3 
(2) we obtain
L  2
re-write the

  s  3  2 
2 nominator

 ( s  3)  1 
1 3 
 2L  2
L  2
  s  3  2    s  3   2 
2 2

(3) we separate the


nominator into two parts
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1  s3  
1  3 
 2L  2
L  
  s  3   2    s  3   2 
2
2 2


1 s3  3 1  2 
 2L  2  L 
  s  3  2 
2 2
2   s  3   2 
2

(4) From the table we can obtain the


inverse Laplace transform
3 3t
 f  t   2e 3 t
cos 2t  e sin 2t
2
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EXAMPLE 4 (YOUR TURN)
Determine the following inverse Laplace transform by
using the method of completing the square :

 3s  7 
1
L  2 
 s  2s  3 

ANSWER : 3et cosh 2t  5et sinh 2t

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METHOD OF PARTIAL
FRACTION
In some cases, the pattern of
rational function is hardly
distinguishable at first look.
Partial fraction is another method to
decompose a complex function.

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To use partial fraction, we need to factor the
denominator as much as possible and then
identify its respective decomposition.

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Example 1,
2 2
s 4 s 4

3s  4s  4s s ( s  2)(3s  2)
3 2

A B C
Factor the   
denominator s s  2 3s  2
as much as
possible
Identify respective
denominators 18
Example 2,
2
s  29 x  5 A B Cs  D
  
( x  4) ( s  3) s  4 ( s  4)
2 2 2 2
s 3

Cannot Identify respective


factorize the denominators
denominator
anymore
EXAMPLE 5
Determine the inverse of the following :

2
3s  6s  2
F s  3 2
s  3s  2s

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2
3s  6s  2
3 2
s  3s  2s
2
3s  6s  2 Factor the

 2
s s  3s  2  denominator
as much as
possible
2
3s  6s  2

s  s  1 s  2
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2
3s  6s  2 A B C
  
s  s  1 s  2 s s 1 s  2

Compare numerators
2
3s  6s  2
 A s  1 s  2  B  s  s  2  C  s  s  1

Expand the numerator!

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 A s  1 s  2  B  s  s  2  C  s  s  1
 2
  2
 
 A s  3s  2  B s  2 s  C s  s 2

2
 ( A  B  C ) s  (3 A  2 B  C ) s  2 A  0
2
Compare numerators: 3s  6s  2

2  A1 2  3(1)  2 B  C  6
A 1 Then, we
compare ‘6s’ and
We get A, and substitute A into
list it as Eqn 1. it. We list it Eqn 2
Then, we
compare ‘3s^2’ 1  B  C  3 We name it
and get relation B  2C as Eqn 3
btw B and C. 3(1)  2 B  C  6
Substitute Eqn 3 into Eqn 2
3(1)  2(2  C )  C  6
3  4  2C  C  6
C 1
Substitute B = 2 – C into C= 1
B 1 We get B
and C! 24
1 3s  6s  2 
 2
Substitute A, B
L  
 s  s  1 s  2 
and C into the
decomposition
1  1
1 1 
L    
s s  1 s  2 
From the table:
1  1  1 
1  1  1 
L  L  L  
s   s  1 s  2 

f t   1 e t
e 2t
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Repeat : EXAMPLE 4 (YOUR TURN)
Determine the following inverse Laplace transform by
using the method of partial fraction:

 3s  7 
1
L  2 
 s  2s  3 
t
ANSWER : 4e  e
3t

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THE CONVOLUTION
THEOREM METHOD

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Let f  t  and g  t  be two
piecewise continuous functions.
The convolution of f  t  and g  t 
denoted  f * g  (t ) , is defined by

t
(f * g )(t )   f  t  v g  v  dv
0

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EXAMPLE 7
Determine the convolution of
3
2t and t
Let f  t   2t g  t   t
3

 
Thus f t  v  2 t  v  
g v   v 3

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t
2t * t  2 t  v  v dv
3

3

0
t


3 4
 2 tv  v dv
0

 tv 4 v 5  t 5
t 
5
 2    2    2 0
 4 5 4 5
5
t

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Let f  t  and g  t  be piecewise
continuous functions, with L f  t   F  s 
L g  tand
  G  s 
The theorem allows us to find the
inverse Laplace transform of a
product of transforms

L  F  s G  s    f * g  t 
1

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EXAMPLE 8
Use the convolution theorem to
find the inverse Laplace
transforms of

1
 s  2 s  3
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1 1 1
 *
 s  2 s  3  s  2  s  3
1 1
Let F  s   and G  s  
s2 s3

then
f  t   L  F  s   e
1 2t

g  t   L G  s   e
1 3 t
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Now we know that
f t   e 2t
gt   e 3 t

Then, apply convolution theorem

f t  v   e 2  t v 
e 2t
e 2v

g v   e 3v

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t


 2t 2v  3v
 e e e dv
0
t t

 
 2t v  2t v
 e e dv  e e dv
0 0

e 2t
 e   e  e 
t 2t 0

2t 3 t
e e 35
EXAMPLE 9 (YOUR TURN)
Determine the following inverse Laplace transform by
using the convolution theorem :


1 1 
L  2 2
 s ( s  1) 

t t
ANSWER: te  2e  t  2

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