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Chapter 8

Receivables
Accounting, 21st Edition
Warren Reeve Fess

© Copyright 2004 South-Western, a division


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Professor Emeritus of Accounting
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Classification of Receivables
 Accounts Receivable—Piutang Usaha: timbul
karena penjualan barang atau jasa secara
kredit, biasanya umurnya jangka pendek
 Notes Receivable—Wesel Tagih,didasarkan
pada suatu surat promes dari debitur.
 Other Receivables— contoh: interest
receivable, taxes receivable, and receivables
from officers and employees.
Separating
Separating the
the Receivable
Receivable Functions
Functions

Credit
Credit Info.
Approval

Collections
Goods or
services Acctg.
Invoice Info

Sales Acctg.
Info.
Accounting
Seringkali
Seringkali suatu
suatu
perusahaan
perusahaan menjual
menjual
piutangnya
piutangnya kepada
kepada pihak
pihak
lain.
lain. Tansaksi
Tansaksi ini
ini disebut
disebut
factoring
factoring of
of Receivable
Receivable
ACCOUNT RECEIVABLE
• Saat timbul
• Saat Pelunasan
• Saat tak tertagih
Saat timbul
• Penjualan kredit/Sales
• meminjamkan uang tunai/Cash

Jurnal
• Account Receivable
Cash/Sale
Piutang Tak Tertagih/
Uncollectible Account/
Bad-Debt Account /
Doubtfull Account/
Uncollectible Account
Piutang tak tertagih
Metode Penghapusan Piutang tak tertagih

1.Metode Cadangan ( Allowance Method)


2.Metode Langsung ( Direct Write-off)
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method
Metode
Metode Cadangan
Cadangan

 Metode ini sesuai dengan matching principle.


 Setiap akhir periode akan dibentuk suatu cadangan atas
piutang yang kemungkinan tidak tertagih berdasarkan
Estimasi.
 Jurnal yang akan dibuat untuk mencatat pembentukan
cadangan :
Uncollectible Accounts Expense
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts
 Pada saat benar-benar terdapat piutang yang tak tertagih
maka akan di jurnal:
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts
Accounts Receivable.
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

31
31 Des,
Des, dari
dari saldo
saldo Piutang
Piutang $$ 105,000
105,000
diestimasikan
diestimasikan terdapat
terdapat piutang
piutang yang
yang
kemungkinan
kemungkinan tak tak tertagih
tertagih sebesar
sebesar $4,000
$4,000

Adjusting Entry
Dec. 31 Uncollectible Accounts Expense 4 000 00
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts 4 000 00
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

umlah
umlah piutang
piutang yang
yang mungkin
mungkin bisa
bisa
agih
agih $101,000
$101,000 ($105,000
($105,000 –– $4,000),
$4,000),
sebut
sebut net
net realizable
realizable value
value (NRV).
(NRV).

The
The adjusting
adjusting entry
entry
reduces
reduces receivables
receivables to
to
the
the NRV
NRV andand matches
matches
uncollectible
uncollectible expenses
expenses
with
with revenues.
revenues.
Receivables
on the
Balance Sheet
Crabtree Co. Balance Sheet
December 31, 2006

Assets
Current assets:
Cash $119,500
Notes receivable 250,000
Accounts receivable $445,000
Less : allowance for
Uncollectible accounts 15,000430,000
Interest receivable 14,500
Merchandise inventory 714,000

Highlighted items are receivables


The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method
Jurnal
Jurnal
Adjusting
Entry
Penyesuaian
Penyesuaian
dibuat
dibuat untuk
untuk
membentuk
membentuk
cadangan
cadangan
Allowance
for
Doubtful
Accounts
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

Pada
Pada saat
saat piutang
piutang
benar-benar
benar-benar
Al fo TFU s
lo r

dihapus
dihapus maka
maka
DO c o

wa
ac
UB u n

nc

akan
akan mengurangi
mengurangi
e
L

cadangan
t

cadangan
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

Jan. 21 Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts 610 00


Accounts Receivable—John Parker 610 00
To write off the uncollectible
account.

On
On January
January 21,
21, diketahui
diketahui
terdapat
terdapat piutang
piutang yang
yang benar2
benar2
tidak
tidak tertagih
tertagih sebesar
sebesar $610
$610
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

Jun. 10 Accounts Receivable—John Parker 610 00


Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts 610 00
To reinstate the account
written off on Jan. 21.

Apabila
Apabila piutang
piutang yang
yang
sebelumnya
On June
June 10,
sebelumnya
On sudah
10, the
the dihapus
written-off
sudah dihapus
written-off
ternyata
account dapat
account
ternyata is ditagih
is collected.
dapat ditagih
collected.
kembali
kembali
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

Jun. 10 Cash 610 00


Accounts Receivable—John Parker 610 00
To record collection on
account.

Saat
Saat cash
cash diterima
diterima dari
dari
pelunasan
pelunasan piutang
piutang
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method
Menghitung
Menghitung Estimasi
Estimasi Beban
Beban Piutang
Piutang Tak
Tak
Tertagih
Tertagih
Dalam menghitung besarnya estimasi atas piutang
tak tertagih bisa dihitung dengan 2 dasar yaitu:

1. Berdasarkan penjualan (percentage of sales).


Penjualan yang dimaksud adalah penjualan
kredit. Contoh Credit sales th berjalan
$300,000 dan estimasi piutang tak tertagih
ditetapkan 1%. Maka jumlah Uncollectible
Accounts Expense = $3,000.
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

Adjusting Entry
Dec. 31 Uncollectible Accounts Expense 3 000 00
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts 3 000 00

Based
Based on
on aa Percentage
Percentage of
of Sales
Sales
Percentage of Credit Sales
The
The ABC
ABC company,
company, Credit
Credit Sales
Sales selama
selama
tahun
tahun berjalan
berjalan $100,000.
$100,000. saldo
saldo A/R
A/R
$30,500.
$30,500. Saldo
Saldo allowance
allowance for
for doubtful
doubtful
accounts
accounts $350
$350 (Cr.).
(Cr.). Diestimasikan
Diestimasikan 3% 3%
dari
dari Credit
Credit Sales
Sales tidak
tidak tertagih
tertagih

Jurnal
Jurnal Penyesuaian
Penyesuaian yang
yang harus
harus dibuat?
dibuat?
Percentage of Credit Sales

The
The ABC
ABC company,
company, Credit
Credit Sales
Sales selama
selama
tahun
tahun berjalan
berjalan $100,000.
$100,000. saldo
saldo A/R
A/R
$30,500.
$30,500. Saldo
Saldo allowance
allowance for
for doubtful
doubtful
accounts
accounts $350
$350 (Cr.).
(Cr.). Diestimasikan
Diestimasikan 3% 3%
dari
dari Credit
Credit Sales
Sales tidak
tidak tertagih
tertagih

Bad Debt Expense…………………… 3,000


Allowance for Doubtful Accounts .. 3,000
To record estimated uncollectible
accounts for the year.
Percentage of Credit Sales

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts


Balance 350
Adjusting 3,000
Dec. 31, Bal. 3,350
2. Berdasarkan Analisa Saldo Piutang
Besarnya cadangan piutang tat tertagih dihitung
erdasarkan saldo piutang. Maka hasil
perhitungan harus memperhatikan saldo
Cadangan sebelumnya.
Contoh: Saldo piutang $ 100,000. Cadangan
Piutang tak tertagih awal $ 200. apabila
ditetapkan besarnya cadangan th ini adl 1%,
maka Beban piutang taktertagih yang harus
dicatat sebesar $ 800 ((1%x100,000)-200)
The
The Allowance
Allowance Method
Method

Adjusting Entry
Dec. 31 Uncollectible Accounts Expense 800 00
Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts 800 00

Based
Based on
on an
an Analysis
Analysis of
of Receivables
Receivables
Percentage of Accounts
Receivable
The
The ABC
ABC company,
company, Credit
Credit Sales
Sales selama
selama
tahun
tahun berjalan
berjalan $100,000.
$100,000. saldo
saldo A/R
A/R
$30,500.
$30,500. Saldo
Saldo allowance
allowance forfor doubtful
doubtful
accounts
accounts $350
$350 (Cr.).
(Cr.). Diestimasikan
Diestimasikan 5% 5%
dari
dari Saldo
Saldo A/R
A/R tidak
tidak tertagih
tertagih

Bad Debt Expense…………………….. 1,175


What
What isis the
Allowance the entry
entry
for to
to record
Doubtfulrecord estimated
estimated bad
Accounts…. bad debts?
debts?
1,175
To record estimated uncollectible
accounts for the year. ($30,500 x .05) - $350
Percentage of Accounts
Receivable
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Balance 350
Adjusting 1,175
Dec. 31, Bal. 1,525
Percentage of Accounts
Receivable
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Apa
Apa pengaruhnya
pengaruhnya kalo
kalo
Balance 350
saldo Adjusting
saldo Allowance adalah
Allowance adalah
1,875
Dec.
Debit
Debit 31, Bal.
$350?
$350? 1,525
AGING SKEDULE

Not Days Past Due


Past over
Customer Balance Due 1-30 31-60 61-90 91-180 181-365 365
Ashby & Co. $ 150 $ 150
B. T. Barr 610 $ 350 $260
Brock Co. 470 $ 470

Saxon Woods 160 160


Total $86,300 $75,000 $4,000 $3,100 $1,900 $1,200 $800 $300

Total
Total accounts
accounts receivable
receivable
shown
shown by
by age.
age.
Daftar Umur Piutang dan % Estimasi piutang tak
tertagih
Not Days Past Due
Past over
Customer Balance Due 1-30 31-60 61-90 91-180 181-365 365
Ashby & Co. $ 150 $ 150
B. T. Barr 610 $ 350 $260
Brock Co. 470 $ 470

Saxon Woods 160 160


Total $86,300 $75,000 $4,000 $3,100 $1,900 $1,200 $800 $300

Uncollectibles
PERCENT 2% 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 80%

% ditentukan berdasarkan
pengalaman tahun2 sebelumnya
Accounts Receivable Aging and Uncollectibles

Not Days Past Due


Past over
Customer Balance Due 1-30 31-60 61-90 91-180 181-365 365
Ashby & Co. $ 150 $ 150
B. T. Barr 610 $ 350 $260
Brock Co. 470 $ 470

Saxon Woods 160 160


Total $86,300 $75,000 $4,000 $3,100 $1,900 $1,200 $800 $300

Uncollectibles
PERCENT 2% 5% 10% 20% 30% 50% 80%

AMOUNT $3,390 = $1,500 $200 $310 $380 $360 $400 $240


Year-End
Year-End Adjustment
Adjustment for
for Uncollectibles
Uncollectibles
General Ledger Balance Sheet
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable $86,300
A 86,300 Less allowance for
doubtful accounts 3,390 C
Allowance for Doubtful Accts.
Net realizable value $82,910
510 A
2,880 B
A Balances before adjustment
3,390 C

B Year-end adjustment:
Uncollectible Accts. Expense
B 2,880 $3,390 – $510 = $2,880

C Balance after adjustment


The Direct Write-Off Method
Metode Penghapusan langsung

 Metode ini dianggap tidak sesuai dengan matching


principle
 Piutang akan di hapuskan pada saat benar-benar tidak
tertagih
 Jurnal:
Uncollectible Accounts Expense xx
Accounts Receivable xx
The
The Direct
Direct Write-Off
Write-Off Method
Method
May 10 Uncollectible Accounts Expense 420 00
Accounts Receivable—D. L. Ross 420 00
To write off an uncollectible
account.

On
On May
May 10,
10, Diketahui
Diketahui Piutang
Piutang Kepada
Kepada
Ny.
Ny. A
A sebesar
sebesar $420,
$420, terbukti
terbukti tidak
tidak
dapat
dapat ditagih
ditagih
The
The Direct
Direct Write-Off
Write-Off Method
Method
Nov. 1 Accounts Receivable—D. L. Ross 420 00
Uncollectible Accounts Expense 420 00
To reinstate account written
off on May 10.

1st Entry

Seandainya
Seandainya piutang
piutang yang
yang sudah
sudah dihapus
dihapus
ternyata
ternyata dapat
dapat ditagih
ditagih kembali
kembali
The
The Direct
Direct Write-Off
Write-Off Method
Method

Nov. 1 Cash 420 00


Accounts Receivable—D. L. Ross 420 00
To record collection on
account.

2nd Entry
Mencatat
Mencatat penerimaan
penerimaan kas
kas atas
atas
pelunasan
pelunasan piutang
piutang
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
2,500.00
$_____________ Payee
Payee
Fresno, California______________20___
March 16 06
Ninety days
________________ _AFTER DATE _______
We PROMISE TO PAY TO
Judson Company
THE ORDER OF ____________________________________________
Two thousand five hundred
_________________________________________________DOLLARS
00/100---------------------------
PAYABLE AT City National Bank
Maker
Maker
______________________________________________
VALUE RECEIVED WITH INTEREST AT 10% ____
14
NO. _______ June 14, 2006
DUE___________________

H. B. Lane
TREASURER, WILLIARD COMPANY
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Surat sanggup membayar yang berisi
informasi mengenai:

 Nilai
Nilai nominal
nominal (principal/Face
(principal/Face Ammount)
Ammount)

 Tanggal
Tanggal notes
notes

 Nama
Nama Penerima
Penerima Notes
Notes (payee)
(payee) dan
dan TTd
TTd
Pembuat
Pembuat Notes
Notes (Maker)
(Maker)

 Tempat
Tempat Pembayaran
Pembayaran

 Tgl
Tgl Jatuh
Jatuh tempo/umur
tempo/umur notes
notes

 Tingkat
Tingkat Bunga/th,
Bunga/th, jika
jika ada
ada
Notes Receivable
• Dicatat sebesar Nilai Nominal
• Dua jenis Notes Rec:
– Interest-bearing: berbunga
– Non-interest-bearing: tidak berbunga
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Notes
Notes
Tanggal
Tanggaltgl
tgl 16
16 maret
suatu
suatu hutangjatuh
maret
hutang jatuh
harus
harus
tempo
tempo 90
dilunasi
dilunasi 90 hari.
disebut
disebut Kapan
hari.tanggal
Kapan
tanggal Tgl
“Jatuh
Tgl
“Jatuh
Tempo”
Jatuh
Tempo” (Due
temponya?
(Due
Jatuh temponya? Date)
Date)
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Total days in note 90 days
Number of days in March 31
Issue date of note March 16
Remaining days in March –15 days
75 days
Number of days in April –30 days
45 days
Number of days in May –31 days
Residual days in June 14 days

Jawab: June 14
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Jumlah
Jumlah yang
yang harus
harus
dibayarkan/diterima
dibayarkan/diterima pada
pada tgl
tgl
jatuh
jatuh tempo
tempo disebut
disebut
maturity
maturity value.
value.
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Maturity
Maturity value
value untuk
untuk ::
*Interest
*Interest Bearing
Bearing == Nominal
Nominal ++ Bunga
Bunga
*Non
*Non Interest
Interest Bearing
Bearing == Nominal
Nominal
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Jurnal yang diperlukan


 Saat
Saat Timbulnya
Timbulnya Notes
Notes

 Saat
Saat Jatuh
Jatuh Tempo
Tempo

 Penyesuaian
Penyesuaian atas
atas Bunga
Bunga terhutang
terhutang

 Pendiskontoan
Pendiskontoan Notes
Notes

 Saat
Saat Jatuh
Jatuh tempo
tempo atas
atas Notes
Notes yg
yg
didiskontokan
didiskontokan
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
21
21 Nov
Nov 2006
2006 Diterima
Diterima Notes
Notes dari
dari Wan
Wan
Abu
Abu $6,000,
$6,000, 12%,
12%, 30-day
30-day atas
atas
penjualan
penjualan barang
barang dagangan
dagangan
Accounting
Accounting for
for Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Nov. 21 Notes Receivable 6 000 00
Sales 6 000 00
Received 30-day, 12% note
dated November 21, 2006.

21
21 Nov
Nov 2006
2006 Diterima
Diterima Notes
Notes dari
dari Wan
Wan
Abu
Abu $6,000,
$6,000, 12%,
12%, 30-day
30-day atas
atas
penjualan
penjualan barang
barang dagangan
dagangan
Accounting
Accounting for
for Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Dec. 21 Cash 6 060 00
Notes Receivable 6 000 00
Interest Revenue 60 00
Received principal and interest
on matured note.

21
21 Dec,
Dec, saat
saat jatuh
jatuh tempo
tempo maka
maka
perusahaan
perusahaan akan
akan menerima
menerima pelunasan
pelunasan
sebesar
sebesar $6,060
$6,060 ($6,000
($6,000 plus
plus $60
$60 interest).
interest).
Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable

Interest Calculation
Nominal x Tingkat Bunga x umur = Interest
$6,000 x 12% x 30/360 = $60.00

Nilai Jatuh tempo


Nominal + Interest = Maturity Value
$6,000 + $60.00 = $6,060.00
Dishonor
Dishonor of
of Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Dec. 21 Accounts Receivable—Bunn Co. 6 060 00
Notes Receivable 6 000 00
Interest Revenue 60 00
To record dishonored note and
interest.

Apabila
Apabila pada
pada Tgl
Tgl Jatuhtempo
Jatuhtempo debitur
debitur tidak
tidak bisa
bisa
melunasi
melunasi maka
maka wesel
wesel tsb
tsb dinamakan
dinamakan dishonored
dishonored
note
note receivable
receivable..
Accounting
Accounting for
for Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Dec. 1 Notes Receivable 4 000 00
Accounts Receivable—Crawford
Company 4 000 00
Received note in settlement of
account.

Diterima
Diterima wesel
wesel tgl
tgl 11 Desember
Desember 2006
2006 atas
atas
pelunasan
pelunasan piutang
piutang dari
dari Tn.
Tn. X,
X, $4000,
$4000, 90-day,
90-day,
12%
12%
Accounting
Accounting for
for Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Dec. 31 Interest Receivable 40 00
Interest Revenue 40 00
Adjusting entry for accrued
interest.

Pada
Pada akhir
akhir periode
periode perlu
perlu dibuat
dibuat
penyesuaian
penyesuaian atas
atas bunga
bunga
Accounting
Accounting for
for Notes
Notes Receivable
Receivable
Mar. 1 Cash 4 120 00
Notes Receivable 4 000 00
Interest Receivable $4,000
$4,000 xx 40 00
Interest Revenue 0.12
0.12 xx 80 00
Received payment on note and 60/360
60/360
interest.

On
On March
March 1,1, 2004,
2004, $4,120
$4,120 isis received
received for
for
the
the note
note ($4,000)
($4,000) and
and interest
interest ($120).
($120).
Discounting Notes Receivable

• Discount Rate: tarif diskon atas penjualan


N/R
• Discount Period: periode antara tgl
penjualan – tgl jatuh tempo
Formulas for Discounting
Notes
Face Ammount = xxxx
Interest = FA x % = xx +
Maturity Value = xxxx
Discount= % Disc x MV x disc period = xx -
Proceed = xxx
Example: Discounting
The
The original
original note
note isis aa 3-month,
3-month, $1,000
$1,000 note
note at at
14%
14% interest.
interest. What
What isis thethe journal
journal entry
entry ifif the
the
note
note was
was discounted
discounted afterafter one
one month
month atat 16%?
16%?
Interest = $1,000 x .14 x 3/12 = $ 35.00
Maturity value = $1,000 + $35 = $1,035.00
Discount = $1,035 x .16 x 2/12 = $ 27.60
Proceeds = $1,035 - $27.60 = $1,007.40
Cash……………………………. 1,007.40
Interest Revenue……………... 7.40
Note Receivable……………... 1,000.00
Jurnal
Cash……………………………. 1,007.40
Interest Revenue……………... 7.40
Note Receivable……………... 1,000.00
Apabila Saat jatuh tempo tidak
tertagih
Account Receivable ……………. 1,035.00
Cash…………….............................................1,035.00
Financial
Analysis and
Interpretation
Accounts Receivable Turnover
Net sales
Average accounts receivable
Accounts
Accounts Receivable
Receivable Turnover
Turnover
2006 2005
Net sales on account $36,000,000 $32,500,000
Accounts receivable (net):
Beginning of year $ 1,080,000 $1,050,000
End of year 1,220,000 1,080,000
Total $2,300,000 $2,130,000
Average $1,150,000 $1,115,000
Accounts receivable turnover 31.3 times 29.1 times
Use:
Use: To
To assess
assess the
the efficiency
efficiency
in
in collecting
collecting receivables
receivables $36,000,000 $32,500,000
and
and inin the
the management
management $1,150,000 $1,115,000
of
of credit.
credit.
Number
Number of
of Days’
Days’ Sales
Sales in
in Receivables
Receivables

Accounts receivable, end of year


Average daily sales

Accounts receivable,
$1,220,000end of year
=12.4 days
Average daily sales
($36,000,000 on account
÷ 365 days)

Use:
Use: To
To assess
assess the
the efficiency
efficiency inin collecting
collecting
receivables
receivables and
and in
in the
the management
management of of credit.
credit.
Chapter 8

The
The End
End