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PRELIMINARY: DO NOT CITE OR DISTRIBUT

• AprilERS
2010Resource Mapping:
Elementary School Resource Use
Duval County Public Schools, February 10,
Based on our experience working in districts, ERS
believes that resources (people, time, and money) need
to be aligned to support seven key transformation
strategies

T R A N S F O R M AT I O N A L
R Eequitable,
S O U R Ctransparent,
E S T R ATandE Gflexible
IES These district strategies support
Ensure
funding across schools and facilitate a system of
high-performing schools
Restructure the teaching Job

Support schools in organizing people, time,


and money to maximize learning

Ensure access to aligned curriculum,


instruction, assessment, PD
Build school and district leader capacity

Redesign central roles for empowerment,


accountability and efficiency
Partner with families and communities

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ERS w ill p re s e n t o u r f in d in g s , a lig nPreliminary
e d t o– Dot Not
h eCite or Distribute
t ra n s f o rm a t io n a l re s o u rc e s t ra t e g ie s , a c ro s s 7
w o rk in g s e s s io n s
Date Topic DCPS Lead Transformational Resource Strategy

Jan School Funding Mike Perrone Ensure equitable, transparent, and flexible funding
across schools

Feb Elementary School Debbie Support schools in organizing people, time, and money
to maximize learning
Menard
Mar Middle School Lawrence
Dennis
Apr High School Elaine Mann

May Central Roles (including Jackie Byrd Redesign central roles for Ensure access to aligned
empowerment, curriculum, instruction,
Turnaround Strategy) Tony Bellamy accountability and efficiency assessment, PD

May Human Capital Vicki Restructure the teaching Build school and district
Job leader capacity
Reynolds
June Wrap-Up & Action TBD Recap findings from the Partner with families and
previous 6 strategies communities
Implications

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Preliminary – Do Not Cite or Distribute

D CP S ’s Ele m e n t a ry P e rfo rm a n c e Ch a lle n g e :

• Bright Spots: Individual schools performing at the highest levels


• State Gap: Lags State in reading & math proficiency; larger
achievement gap than State
• Strategic Plan Gap: SY0910 performance lagged targets
• Highly Diverse ES Portfolio: Half of low-performing students
served in a quarter of schools
• Higher ES Funding Level: Necessitates hard look at ES
resource use

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performing schools look the same, their
school designs tend to share common
elements

Teaching
Effectiveness

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school’s organizing structures around
the instructional model to invest in
these common elements
STRATEGIC DESIGN
Key Components

Student Schedule
Course offerings, time per subject and lessons, rotation, period lengths, length of day and year

Instructor-Student Grouping
Professional Development Class size, small groups, looping, instructor type, teacher loads, cohort size/clusters, differences by
learning and collaboration, individual and new teacher needs, provider type, time required, job assignment and learning.

Instructional Model
Learning goals, curriculum content, organization instructional approach, and location assessments

Administration and Student Support Instructional Interventions


Type,
Type of non-classroom support, location, providers, frequency, student referral process, group sizes, level of regular education integration, use of ins
roles.
Teacher Teaming
Goals, team composition, leadership and support, size, time for collaboration.

Budget
Staffing Plan
Master Schedule

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DCPS is already investing in structures
to support teaching effectiveness,
individual attention, and academic time

Teaching
Effectiveness

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leadership is to create the right mix of
support, capacity and accountability
around resource use
Are our schools’ use of resources appropriately:
qDifferentiated based on unique school needs & strengths?
qConsistent with the district’s expectations and best practice?
qEfficient?

day’s Objective: Identify opportunities to strengthen school resource use in these wa

Take Action

Parking lot for


Action Implications Keys to Success
future sessions
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Today’s agenda

1.Strategic designs in action


2.ES school portfolio cohorts
3.Analysis of investment in:

4.Size-driven Misalignments
5.Discuss & prioritize action implications

9
Strategic Schools Video Discussion
Questions

 Using the ERS framework as a guide…

 What structures and/or practices do you think make each school


effective?

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Executive Summary
DCPS is already investing in structures to support teaching effectiveness, individual attention, and

academic time.

The greatest challenges are therefore to ensure that resources allocations, expectations and support are

differentiated across the diversity of DCPS schools and that schools have the capacity to use their
resources effectively.

The lowest performing schools in Duval have the lowest performing teachers; the district must work to shift

this distribution.

DCPS can invest further in teaching effectiveness by supporting principals both in creating teacher teams

that have varied expertise and in organizing schedules to create longer blocks of time for teams to
collaborate with expert support.

Flexible grouping models that regroup both staff and students based on student need provide an important

opportunity for Duval to increase individual attention.

Duval’s investment in social and emotional supports is lower than its peers, and students in the highest

needs schools may benefit significantly from targeted ongoing investment.

Duval’s formative assessments are critical to the success of the school designs; current challenge is to

continue to improve implementation.

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Today’s agenda

1.Strategic designs in action


2.ES school portfolio cohorts
3.Analysis of investment in:

4.Size-driven Misalignments
5.Discuss & prioritize action implications

12
To maximize performance, leadership
must adapt strategy based on student
needs in different schools

Areas of district strategy to adapt


Autonomy Support
Flexibility Resources
Accountability Supervision

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Today’s agenda

1.Strategic designs in action


2.ES school portfolio cohorts
3.Analysis of investment in:

4.Size-driven Misalignments
5.Discuss & prioritize action implications

14
maximize combined expertise and have
time and support for effective
collaboration

 Teaching Effectiveness:
1. Create teaching teams and staffing plans that
maximize collective expertise for student and
teacher learning. Teaching Effectiveness

2. Create sufficient collaborative planning time for teacher


teams, and ensure the time is used well.

3. Develop expert support for teaching teams.

4. Support individual teacher growth, with different


strategies for different types of teachers:

5. Improve the hiring process to ensure that new hires fit


the vision and needs of the school.

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teacher effectiveness - we will come
back to this in human capital, but for
now we use proxies . . .

Potential Metrics for Teacher Effectiveness

−TAI: 99.9% of teachers in DCPS were rated satisfactory in 2009-10

−FCAT Gains: Only for FCAT tested subjects grades 4-5

Proxy metrics for Teacher Effectiveness


­ % Novice teachers

­ % Teachers receiving MAP bonus

Source: DCPS 09-10 teacher evaluation data (11 teachers unsatisfactory)


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percent novice teachers, but they are
more concentrated in high poverty
schools than other districts studied

# Schools* 137 78 244 142 171 190 130 61


% of teachers that 35% 31% 26% 24% 24% 23% 16% 11%
are novice

*Excludes the following school types: charters, special education, early childhood, closed schools, and other outliers, such as schools that are opening or closing;
Boston includes all schools.
Source: ERS analysis of DCPS human resource data; ERS district benchmark data 17
Less effective teachers are clustered in
the highest needs schools, which also
receive more ISPD $

School Type % Novice ISPD $/ Teacher % Receiving


MAP bonus
ES Average (106 schools) 22% $3475 22%
Not T1 or TA (52 schools) 17% $1960 30%
Title I (54 schools) 29% $5400 12%
Turnaround (16 schools) 34% $8270 8%
Difference between TA and +17% $6,310 -22%
non Title I/TA

rences in teacher populations will need to organize resources differently to best support and de

Source: ERS analysis of DCPS human resource data; ERS district benchmark data 18
instructional support stresses the inter-
related nature of critical teaching
effectiveness investments

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Team assignment prioritizes short-term
FCAT gain over longer-term teaching
effectiveness
• Principals are clustering their best teachers in FCAT tested grade levels

­
• Principals also cluster novice teachers together on grade-level teams

­
­

Take Action
For all schools except high-fliers: Build capacity and data tools for more effective team assig
For all schools: Integrate human capital management into principal incentive structure
Teams

Source: ERS analysis of DCPS course schedule and HR data


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Duval structures allow for effective CPT,
but few schools have sufficient time,
expert support
DCPS CPT Assets
ERS criteria for effective CPT
üHigh Fliers as shining
examples
Minimum of 90 min block/ week for grade
1 level üSufficient planning time in
day/week
Expert facilitator/group leader üCoaches in place at the
2 neediest schools
Accountability to use time well ü
3
Shared goal to improve each person’s teaching DCPS CPT Challenges
4 üCurrent CPT blocks too short
Discuss student work, formative assessment üInconsistent use of time
5 data
üUnion contract limits support
üTeachers’ capacity to use data
varies
ü

Source: ERS spotlight school visits


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Existing teacher release time can be
1
restructured to create longer blocks of
planning time for grade levels
Types of Planning Time Hours/Yr Options for restructuring planning
Early Release Days 20 time into longer blocks
Faculty Meetings 18 Double-block specials
Resource periods (4/wk) 135 2 specials back-back for grade level

Before/after school time 120


Double-block specials with end of day
Pre /post and quarterly planning 70 Specials either first or last period of day
days Combine with before/after-school block.
Total hours/year 363

Restructure faculty meetings/early release


10 hours per instructional week Use 75 minutes of ER time for CPT
Create 90 minutes of grade-level CPT per week
in non ER weeks by:
Take Action Putting before/after school planning
For HFs: Serve as guide/model for others
block at end of day
For all schools: Create templates and central resource for support
CPT Restructuring 18 hrs of faculty meetings
ools except HFs: Integrate experts to support rigorous implementation
to extend end of day planning

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Duval is investing in experts in
2
Turnaround, but has opportunity to
expand investment for edge schools
While schools with the greatest need for expert . . . “Edge” schools may require additional
support generally receive more resources . . . investment (teacher-leaders).
Teac Teac
hers hers
: :
Coac + Coac +
h h

Percent Novice Teachers Percent Novice Teachers

TakeEdge Schools: Ensure expert support (teacher leadership) in the absence of coaching resour
Action
Expert
Support
Note: Analysis is based on 09-10 payroll file; does not reflect adjustments made to coaching allocation for 10-11 school year; edge schools are defined as non Title I/TA with > 50%

poverty 23
Feedback from Spotlight schools
suggested a need for support/capacity-
building in implementation
Implementation Barriers
Effective Coaching Model
DTU contract
Rigorous Selection Process
 Coach/principal vision
Clearly defined Roles and Responsibilities
 Coach pipeline
Teaching and student performance standards that guide work

Induction and on-going training in content and adult learning


Time in the school day to work with teachers one-on-one and strategic groups

School flexibility to use resources based on school performance needs/capacity


Joint accountability for district, coaches, principal and teachers


Adequate and differentiated levels of support


Evaluation is linked to development of teachers


All schools: Explore modification to DTU contract to integrate coaches into CPT
Take Action All but HF: Build capacity around coaching role to ensure effectiveness
HFs: Incubate talent for deployment elsewhere
Expert
Support

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Teaching Effectiveness: Action
Take Action
Implications
Design Area Portfolio Target Action Implications
Team Assignment All but HF’s Build principal capacity and data tools for more effective team
assignment
Integrate human capital management into principal incentive

Collaborative Planning All schools structure


Create schedule templates & central resource for support
Time
All but HF’s Integrate experts to support rigorous implementation

HF’s Serve as guide/model for others


Expert Support Edge Schools Ensure expert support (teacher leadership) in the absence of
coaching resources
All schools Explore modification to DTU contract to integrate coaches into

CPT
All but HF’s Build capacity around coaching role to ensure effectiveness

HF’s Incubate talent for deployment elsewhere


ments in these areas are predicated on being able to accurately and consistently measure te
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individual attention for students and
foster personal relationships between
students and teachers

 Individual Attention:
1. Track individual student progress and
continuously adjust instruction
2. Ensure targeted individual support
through small group sizes and Teaching

reduced teaching loads in high Effectiveness

needs areas
3. Address students’ social and
Individual Attention
emotional needs

ERS usually finds that districts over-invest to keep all class sizes significantly
below required maximums; this is not the case in Duval.
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differentiate class size, flexible
grouping is key to creating
opportunities for small group instruction
DCPS Grouping Assets
ERS criteria for effective Flexible Grouping üDistrict-wide and school-based
assessment systems
Regular formative assessments, üSufficient planning time
1 common to subject/grade üPush-in VE teachers available for
grouping
Time in schedule for teachers to review üRtI training beginning to build capacity
2 data, group students ü

Flexible staff available to create groups


3 DCPS Grouping Challenges
PD on creating and using groups well
üMultiple assessments create data
4 overload; teachers’ proficiency varies
üCPT challenges reviewed previously
üClass size constraint results in few
floating staff
üVaried understanding and buy-in on
rincipal buy-in to the importance of grouping is key for implementation rigor.
grouping strategies
ü
ü
ü 27
Schools are implementing multiple
1
assessment tools with overlapping
purposes

• FAIR
ES Formative/Predictive
Assessment Tools ═
? Purposes of Assessments
Regrouping/re-teaching
• PMA Grouping to teach new content

• Benchmark Informing allocation of support


resources
• DRA2 Satisfying external mandates
• District common grade-level District leadership accountability
assessment tools (e.g. Limelight)
• School-developed common grade-
level assessments

All Schools:
Take Action Continue refinement & capacity-building around district tools
Decrease overlap of district and school-designed assessments
Formatives HF: Explore release from mandatory use of district tools

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Current staffing resources could be
3
reorganized to increase opportunities for
flexible grouping

ES Staffing Ratios Students/ Options for Regrouping


Staff
General Ed Class Size 18 Regroup students amongst homeroom
1 teachers during universal reading block
Students per Teacher 13.7
Students per Instructional Staff 11.7
17 25
Students per Professional Staff 10.5
16 9
Students per Staff 9.5 16 15

Have all instructional staff participate in


2 instruction during a dedicated block

17 10
Take Action 16 5
s: Build capacity and provide models for effective grouping configurations 10
16
Small 9
Group 15

Music teacher, VE
Source: ERS analysis of Duval expenditure, payroll, and course schedule data teacher push-in
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Individual Attention: Action
Take Action
Implications

Design Area Portfolio Target Action Implications


Use of formative All schools Continue refinement & capacity-building around district
data to adjust tools
instruction Decrease overlap of district and school-designed

assessments

HF Explore release from mandatory use of district tools


Small group sizes All but HF’s Build capacity and provide models for effective grouping

in high needs areas configurations


Social & emotional TA-High Needs Explore multiple strategies, including external partnership, to

provide extra social emotional support for students

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Today’s agenda

1.Strategic designs in action


2.ES school portfolio cohorts
3.Analysis of investment in:

4.Size-driven Misalignments
5.Discuss & prioritize action implications

31
In Duval, school size at the
Elementary/K-8 Level correlates strongly
with spending per pupil
Elementary and K-8 Schools: SA $/pp vs. Enrollment
Notes and observations

Strong correlation between


school size and cost per
student
School-Attributed (adjusted $/pp)

MLK Jr.


Cost curve for ES gets
much steeper below 400
students

We see a similar but less
pronounced trend (i.e.,
Bank of America
flatter curve) when we
look at Middle and High
Schools
Chets Creek
New Berlin

Enrollment

Source: DCPS FY0910 Expenditures, Survey 2 Data, ERS analysis


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Questions on small schools for
leadership to consider:

1 What are the benefits of schools being small?


2 Which schools need these benefits?


3 How can we reduce the cost of small schools without


impacting the benefits?

We are focusing on #3 today, but . . .

the “size premium” should be considered after articulating a theory on which schools should

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Take Action
School Size: Action Implications

• Action Implications Estimated


Impact
• School closure/consolidation
Explore of 6-8 ES
combination grade classes @ 500
(K-1, 1-2) for $3
< $2- $4
(Millions)
K/school
highly
Specialeffective
subject teachers
pooling $2 - $4
Explore alternative strategies to reinvest VE ~
subsidy
Deployment of more PT staff to small schools < $1

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The smallest schools tend to have lower class
sizes, and smaller gaps between K-3 and 4-5
class size
ELEMENTARY AVERAGE HOMEROOM CLASS SIZE* BY GRADE
AND SCHOOL SIZE

N
u
m
be
r
of
St
ud
en
ts
pe
r
H
oClass size differences between big and small schools
m
erK-3 Class size difference
4-5 class size difference
1.5 students
2.5 students
Total cost of class
ooDifference in class size increase K-3 4-5 1 student size difference is
m $1.6 Million
* ERS methodology for calculating elementary class size differs slightly from State of FL; State reports show average class sizes roughly 0.75 students
less than ERS method.
 Source: ERS analysis of Duval course schedule , expenditure, and payroll data 35
where grade enrollments are just above
class size max can reduce cost –
especially in very small schools
Current Combo Grade
Configuration Configuration
17 18
1st grade enrollment: 16 13+3
49 students
16 18

Combo class enables reduction of 1 classroom

14 14 18
2nd grade enrollment:
56 students 17
14 14 18

1st - 2nd Average Class Size: 15.0 17.5

ore challenging than single grade classes – and will require deliberate teacher and st

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often result in unintended reductions in
DRAFT - CONFIDENTIAL

special subject class sizes, unless


deliberately managed through pooling
Homeroom Class Spec Subject Class

Current Configuration Pooled Special Subject Configuration

16 16 16
23
16 16 16
23
14 16 14

Pooling special subject classes reduces staffing need and maintains breadth and scale of offeri

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Preliminary – Do Not Cite or Distribute

In c re a s in g s p e c ia l s u b je c t c la s s s iz e s b y
p o o lin g c la s s e s c a n c re a t e s a v in g s

# SS Teacher FTE 290 260 218 191


K-3 Avg. Group Size 17.2 19.1 23.0 25.7

Note: Special subjects includes Art, Computer, Music, and PE.


Source: ERS analysis of DCPS expenditure, course schedule, and payroll data 38
Investment in VE staffing ratio at small schools
may be more efficiently reallocated to other
intervention strategies
ELEMENTARY VE STAFFING RATIO VS.
5TH GRADE ESE READING
Pe PROFICIENCY
rce ES average: 25 Reinvestment possibilities
nt
of
ES Push-in intervention/reading teachers
E for small group instruction
stu 
de Additional compensation for
nts genuinely expert dual-cert teachers to
pr serve VE students in gen-ed setting
ofi with reduced class size.
cie

nt
on Eliminate service delivery at schools
5th with smallest VE enrollments; shift to
tea
VE

VE
ud
ch

en
er

of
ts

st
s

other locations
#
:

gra
de
rea
atio”din
to ensure that all schools have at least 2 VE teachers . . . But, there is no apparent relationship of invest
g
FC
AT

Note: Schools with ESE populations too small to report on are excluded; 3 outlier schools removed with >60 ratios
 Source: FL DOE FCAT district report by school and subgroup (09-10); ERS analysis of Duval payroll data 39
Today’s agenda

1.Strategic designs in action


2.ES school portfolio cohorts
3.Analysis of investment in:

4.Size-driven Misalignments
5.Discuss & prioritize action implications

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For Discussion: Take Five

 In groups of 3-4:

1.
2.Review the key takeaways and action implications from each section of
the materials.
3.Select 5 actions (directly from the summary slides or inspired by today’s
analysis) that are most important for the district to pursue to meet its
performance and financial goals.
4.Prepare to share with the team why you chose them

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