487 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Karl Jimenez Separa

- Physics Project : Relativity
- relativity
- Special Theory of Relativity
- Relativity
- Super-Luminal Effects for Finsler Branes as a Way to Preserve the Paradigm of Relativity Theories
- Eisenbud on the Classical Laws of Motion
- Ch 3 Relativity
- Relativity Overview the Physics of Bruce Harvey
- Magnetic Field
- Articlegdnfgh
- Lecture 3 Relativity and Covariant Electrodynamics
- Sir Isaac Newton
- Against the Curvature of Space Time
- LAW of Newton
- Class XI Physics DPP Set (20) - Previous Chaps - COM. B.
- Special Relativity Introduction
- Gr Lectures
- Relativistic Formulation 1 (1)
- Good - Newtons Third Law
- 001 Calibsies Time and Causation

Anda di halaman 1dari 42

2

Inertial Reference Frame:

One in which Newton’s first law is valid.

Earth is rotating and therefore not an inertial

reference frame, but can treat it as one for

many purposes.

A frame moving with a constant velocity with

respect to an inertial reference frame is

itself inertial.

Relativity Principle:

The basic laws of physics are the same in all

inertial reference frames.

If Newton’s laws are valid in one reference

frame, then they are also valid in another

reference frame moving at a uniform

velocity relative to the first system.

This is referred to as the Newtonian principle of

relativity or Galilean invariance.

parallel, these frames

are said to be Inertial

Coordinate Systems

For a point P:

In one frame S:

P = (x, y, z, t)

In another frame S’:

P = (x’, y’, z’, t’)

x x vt 1. Parallel axes

x x vt

2. S’ has a constant relative

y y velocity (here in the x-direction)

with respect to S.

y y

z z 3. Time (t) for all observers is a

Fundamental invariant, i.e., it’s

z z

t t the same for all inertial

observers. t t

This principle works well for mechanical

phenomena.

However, Maxwell’s equations yield the

velocity of light; it is 3.0 x 108 m/s.

So, which is the reference frame in which light

travels at that speed?

Scientists searched for variations in the speed

of light depending on the direction of the

ray, but found none.

This experiment was designed to measure the

speed of the Earth with respect to the

ether.

The Earth’s motion around the Sun should

produce small changes in the speed of

light, which would be detectable through

interference when the split beam is

recombined.

The Michelson interferometer

is sketched here, along with an

analogy using a boat traveling

in a river.

This interferometer was able to measure

interference shifts as small as 0.01 fringe,

while the expected shift was 0.4 fringe.

However, no shift was ever observed, no matter

how the apparatus was rotated or what time

of day or night the measurements were made.

The possibility that the arms of the apparatus

became slightly shortened when moving

against the ether was considered, but a full

explanation had to wait until Einstein came

into the picture.

x vt

x

1 v / c2 2

y y

z z

t vx / c 2

t

1 v2 / c 2

1. The laws of physics have the same form in all

inertial reference frames.

2. Light propagates through empty space with

speed c independent of the speed of source or

observer.

the invariance of the speed of light in vacuum –

the speed of light is in fact the same in all

inertial reference frames.

It was impossible to

achieve the kinds of

speeds necessary to

test his ideas

(especially while

working in the patent

office…), so Einstein

used Gedanken

experiments or

thought experiments.

Young Einstein

One of the implications of relativity theory is

that time is not absolute. Distant observers

do not necessarily agree on time intervals

between events, or on whether they are

simultaneous or not.

In relativity, an “event” is defined as occurring

at a specific place and time.

Thought experiment: Lightning strikes at two

separate places. One observer believes the

events are simultaneous – the light has taken

the same time to reach her – but another,

moving with respect to the first, does not.

Here, it is clear that

if one observer sees

the events as

simultaneous, the

other cannot, given

that the speed of

light is the same for

each.

A different

thought

experiment,

using a clock

consisting of a

light beam and

mirrors, shows

that moving

observers must

disagree on the

passage of time.

Calculating the difference between clock “ticks,”

we find that the interval in the moving frame is

related to the interval in the clock’s rest frame:

by that observer to run more slowly (as compared

to clocks at rest)”.

The factor multiplying t0 occurs so often in

relativity that it is given its own symbol,

called Lorentz factor.

symbol called the speed factor.

The time t0 is called the proper time. It

represents the time interval between two

events in a reference frame where

.

Measurements of the same time interval from

any other inertial reference frame are

always greater. This time, t, is called the

relativistic time.

Time dilation is reciprocal: observers in

frames that are at rest see time travel faster

than for those in motion. And vice versa!

Some values of :

Example 1: Time dilation at 100 km/h.

Let us check time dilation for everyday

speeds. A car traveling covers a certain

distance in 10.00 s according to the

driver’s watch. What does an observer

at rest on Earth measure for the time

interval?

Example 2: Time dilation at very high speed.

A passenger on a high-speed spaceship

traveling between Earth and Jupiter at a

steady speed of 0.75c reads a magazine

which takes 10.0 min according to her watch.

(a) How long does this take as measured by

Earth-based clocks? (b) How much farther is

the spaceship from Earth at the end of

reading the article than it was at the

beginning?

It has been proposed that space travel could

take advantage of time dilation – if an

astronaut’s speed is close enough to the

speed of light, a trip of 100 light-years could

appear to the astronaut as having been

much shorter.

The astronaut would return to Earth after being

away for a few years, and would find that

hundreds of years had passed on Earth.

This brings up the twin paradox – if any

inertial frame is just as good as any other,

why doesn’t the astronaut age faster than

the Earth traveling away from him?

Because:

appears infinitely long at the speed of light.

5.] The mean lifetime of stationary muons is measured to be 2.2 s. The mean

lifetime of high-speed muons in a burst of cosmic rays observed from Earth

is measured to be 16 s. Find the speed of these cosmic-ray muons

relatiive to Earth.

6.] An unstable high-energy particle enters a detector and leaves a track 1.05

mm long before it decays. Its speed relative to the detector was 0.992c.

What is its proper time? That is how long would the particle have lasted

before decay had it been at rest with respect to the detecto?

If time intervals are different in different

reference frames, lengths must be different

as well.

Length contraction is given by:

or

the length of the object – or distance

between two points whose positions are

measured at the same time – as

.

Length L will be measured by observers when

the object travels past them at speed .

“The length of an object is measured to be shorter

when it is moving relative to the observer than

when it is at rest”.

direction of motion.

A moving object shrinks Relative point of view

10.] The length of a spaceship is measured to be exactly half its rest length. (a)

What is the speed of the spaceship relative to the observer’s frame? (b) By

what factor do the spaceship’s clocks run slow, compared to clocks in the

observer’s frame?

14.] A spaceship of rest length 1.30 m races past a timing station at a speed of

0.74c. (a) What is the length of the spaceship as measured by the timing

station? (b) What time interval will the station clock record between the

passage of the front and back end of the ship?

x vt x vt

x x

1 v2 / c2 Length 1 v2 / c2

contraction

y y y y

z z Simultaneity z z

problems

t vx / c 2 t vx / c 2

t t

1 v2 / c 2 Time 1 v2 / c2

dilation

Space and time are now linked, and the frame velocity cannot exceed c.

A more symmetrical form:

v/c

1

1 v / c 2 2

Space and time are now linked, and the frame velocity cannot exceed c.

Expressions for mass and momentum also

change at relativistic speeds.

Mass:

m0 = rest mass

Momentum:

A basic result of special relativity is that

nothing can equal or exceed the speed of

light. This would require infinite momentum

– not possible for anything with mass.

At relativistic speeds the formula for energy

is modified as well.

Kinetic Energy:

m = relativistic mass

m0 = rest mass

Total Energy:

total energy

rest energy

Combining the relations for energy and

momentum gives the relativistic relation

between them:

All the formulas presented here become the

usual Newtonian kinematic formulas when

the speeds are much smaller than the

speed of light.

There is no rule for when the speed is high

enough that relativistic formulas must be

used – it depends on the desired accuracy

of the calculation.

40.] How much work must be done to increase the speed of an electron from

rest to (a) 0.50c, (b) 0.990c, (c) 0.9990c?

44.] What is the speed of an electron whose kinetic energy is 100MeV?

45.] A particle has a speed of 0.990c in a laboratory reference frame. What are

its kinetic energy, its total energy, and its momentum if the particle is (a) a

proton and (b) an electron?

[Assignment: 42, 48, 54]

The predictions of special relativity have been

tested thoroughly, and verified to great

accuracy.

The correspondence principle says that a more

general theory must agree with a more

restricted theory where their realms of

validity overlap. This is why the effects of

special relativity are not obvious in

everyday life.

- Physics Project : RelativityDiunggah olehTJ
- relativityDiunggah olehSahil Chadha
- Special Theory of RelativityDiunggah olehAnik
- RelativityDiunggah olehEruner
- Super-Luminal Effects for Finsler Branes as a Way to Preserve the Paradigm of Relativity TheoriesDiunggah olehSergiu Vacaru
- Eisenbud on the Classical Laws of MotionDiunggah olehCharles Szilard
- Ch 3 RelativityDiunggah olehLap Quoc
- Relativity Overview the Physics of Bruce HarveyDiunggah olehswvhit
- Magnetic FieldDiunggah olehBoreda Rahul
- ArticlegdnfghDiunggah olehJoe Sibayan
- Lecture 3 Relativity and Covariant ElectrodynamicsDiunggah olehEn-Min Shih
- Sir Isaac NewtonDiunggah olehCholo Manalo
- Against the Curvature of Space TimeDiunggah olehWaldo Gómez Alvarez
- LAW of NewtonDiunggah olehUtkarshShringi
- Class XI Physics DPP Set (20) - Previous Chaps - COM. B.Diunggah olehAshish Ranjan
- Special Relativity IntroductionDiunggah olehSQuest
- Gr LecturesDiunggah olehzcapg17
- Relativistic Formulation 1 (1)Diunggah olehJyoti Prakash
- Good - Newtons Third LawDiunggah olehmilous
- 001 Calibsies Time and CausationDiunggah olehMind Reading
- Newton's First LawDiunggah olehimanuelsukarno
- 1st Quarter Course Outline in Science 8 SY2016-2017Diunggah olehJames B Malicay
- NICDiunggah olehalakb34
- CBSE CBSE Class 9 NCERT Solution Science Force Laws of MotionDiunggah olehdash
- NlmDiunggah olehVinay Aanand Aanand
- eled 3221 lesson planDiunggah olehapi-313453801
- Lecture 1Diunggah olehredcoat
- 1Diunggah olehMaricar Porta

- ASCCP Guidelines.pdfDiunggah olehmisstina.19876007
- Bacterial Men CPGDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Rehab Scales and TablesDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Use of Primary High Risk Human Papillomavirus.2 (1)Diunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Philippine Practice Guidelines Group in Infectious Diseases-Task Force on Urinary Tract InfectionsDiunggah olehSirias_black
- Pedia 251 NotesDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- AUB Classification.pdfDiunggah olehfelly
- CPG Abnormal Labor and Delivery.pdfDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Diagnosis and Management of UTI in the Community SettingDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Ectrodactyly.pdfDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Drug Induced Limb DefectsDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- MED SCAPE 1 Ovarian Cancer_ Practice Essentials, Background, PathophysiologyDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- INTERNS NOTES - OtorhinolaryngologyDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Neonatal and Pediatric VesselsDiunggah olehAhmed Gaber
- General VentDiunggah olehAshley Green Blevins
- LU6 OrientationDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Duty Schedule for Mess HallDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Standard Admit OrdersDiunggah olehElie Saad
- CCAM 1Diunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Green Tea and CancerDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- OS 214 E1 20150218 LEC 08 Pathology of Tubular DiseasesDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- CML DiagnosisDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Summary Organic ReactionsDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Chap 2 Edited Nigga HsDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Physical Examination GuideDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa
- Bio 22 Lab - Post Lab 3 IIDiunggah olehKarl Jimenez Separa

- 3- Pressure Drop Due to FrictionDiunggah olehlancho97
- UNIT-1 Basic Concepts of ThermodynamicsDiunggah olehsutha_me20098282
- Priemysel Kompenzacia Aples Technologies Katalog-JDiunggah olehAshfaque Ahmed
- 3PHASE CircuitsDiunggah olehrakeshee2007
- jasmin malhotra- folio task 1Diunggah olehapi-287665202
- MCQ rfDiunggah olehAnonymous JnvCyu85
- DC ArcsDiunggah olehAditya Shekhar
- qt40_241Diunggah olehykuscu
- Introduction Electrodynamics Griffiths SolutionsDiunggah olehKishore Kumar
- [8]_New static var control using force commutated inverters.pdfDiunggah olehrakeshee2007
- 318099579-EE6411-Electrical-Machines-1-Lab-Manual.pdfDiunggah olehMuhammad Noman
- ED SyllabusDiunggah olehAR-T
- Physics 2 STPM Trial 2014Diunggah olehAbdul Shariff
- Impedance MatchingDiunggah olehandreshoyte794
- atlas-copco-fault-codes.pdfDiunggah olehThetTinAung
- Fluids SubjectiveDiunggah olehSayantan Chatterjee
- A Synchronous GeneratorDiunggah olehAyachitula Sharath Kumar
- AB 9Diunggah olehnira365
- worksheet1Diunggah olehMr. Craig Baker
- The hydrodymanic coefficients for swaying, heaving and rolling cylinders in a free surfaceDiunggah olehDennys Ramirez
- EXP9 NPN and PNP Transistors Operating as a SwitchDiunggah olehMohammed Dyhia Ali
- Partial_molar_volumes.pdfDiunggah olehAnonymous WI0nbs
- Chapter 3 PressureDiunggah olehtanzil10
- 1zua5663-210 r2 Sudden Pressure RelayDiunggah olehintrudentalert
- HT800_ServiceCodesDiagnosticsDiunggah olehJohn Juquen
- FlowDiunggah olehdaman8448
- Flow in Pipe - Bernoulli EquationDiunggah olehSandesh Kirolkar
- 凱薩空壓機Diunggah oleh333-592552
- Distillation Column DesignDiunggah olehkausshal28
- Packed ColumnDiunggah olehDeanna Sharma