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ËPromising solution for last mile access
ËHigh speed internet access in residential as well as small and
medium sized enterprise sector
  
Ë mase of deployment and installation
Ë Much higher data rates can be supported
Ë Capacity can be increased by installing more base stations
  
Ë Price
Ë Performance
Ë Interoperability issues
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_ ]iMax (]orldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a
standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless
broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL.
_ The technology is specified by the Institute of mlectrical and mlectronics
mngineers Inc., as the Immm .16 standard.
_ ]iMAX promises to provide different kinds of services with guaranteed
QoS.
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Immm .16 QoS Architecture
  .   
§ / *  )
A QoS mechanism that decides whether a new session (connection) can
be established.
§ /0  )
This mechanism will ensure that existing sessions· QoS will not be
degraded and the new session will be provided QoS support.
§ / )
A connection is admitted if
Ë There is enough bandwidth to accommodate the new connection
Ë The new admitted connection will receive QoS guarantees
Ë QoS of existing connections is maintained.
  . - .  * .

Ë ±ew Call Blocking Probability (±CBP)


Ë Handoff Call Dropping Probability (HCDP)
Ë Bandwidth Utilization (BU)
Impact of these Parameters
§ ±CBPs and HCDPs gives the level of user satisfaction. Lower the
±CBP and HCDP of a connection higher is the level of user
satisfaction
§ BU of the system gives the level of Operator Satisfaction. Higher the
BU higher is the level of operator satisfaction.
§ Therefore CAC scheme which has Lower BPs, Lower DPs and Higher
BU of the system is better CAC scheme
12/*

I. Reservation Based CAC


II. ±on-Reservation Based CAC
 - 3* .
Èeatures
±on-Reservation Based CAC
Modified from the ÈBD-CAC[19]
Bandwidth guarantee to all the
connections
Delay guarantee to rtPS connections[4]
mxcellent Bandwidth Utilization
+4,  3+3
5%67
§ In this scheme the bandwidth of lower priority connections are degraded
to accommodate more connections.
§ The degradation is done in steps with an initially assigned step size
(delta).
§ Degradation is performed on rtPS and nrtPS connections to allow more
handoff calls.
§ To allow more new UGS connections the degraded bandwidth from
nrtPS connections is also allocated to UGS connections.
mxample :-
Let B= 14 kbps
BUGS= 6 kbps
BRTPSMAX = 14 kbps; BRTPSMI±=1 kbps
B±RTPSMAX= 14 kbps; B±RTPSMI±=1 kbps
Let at any instant the numbers calls admitted in the system as
given below :-
±u=1; ±r=3; ±n=
Total used bandwidth=±u*BUGS+±r*BRTPSMAX+±n*B±RTPSMAX
=14 kbps.
_ ]hen a new UGS call arrives degradation will be
performed on nrtPS connections
_ After degradation the Bandwidth available for nrtPS
connection is given by
Bn=B±RTPSMAX-delta
Let delta=6 kbps
Therefore Bn =76 kbps.
±ow
Total used bandwidth=(±u+1)*BUGS+±r*BRTPSMAX+±n*Bn
=916 kbps
Total bandwidth degraded = ±u*delta =*6 =1  kbps.
  +3* .

Ë Degradation more than necessary


Ë Step size initially assigned arbitrarily
Ë Available bandwidth for rtPS and nrtPS
connections are less
Ë Computation time is longer because of the
degradation loop
Bandwidth utilization of the system is greatly
affected.
-,  3 .

Ë ±o fixed step size degradation.


Ë ±o need to assigned initial step size.
Ë Instead calculate the minimum required
bandwidth and then degrade.
Ë The degradation is adaptive to the required
bandwidth.
mxample :- ]hen a new UGS connection
arrives degradation is performed to obtain
the minimum required bandwidth as follows:
delta= [{(±u+1)*BUGS+±r*BRTPSMAX+±n*BRTPSMAX} ² B]/±n
=1. kbps.
Available bandwidth of nrtPS connections = B±RTPSMAX-delta
=14-1. = 97. kbps
Total bandwidth degraded = *1. = 6 kbps.
±ow,
Total used bandwidth=(±u+1)*BUGS+±r*BRTPSMAX+±n*Bn
=14 kbps.
Simulation Setup
Ë Simulation was performed in MATLAB environment.
Ë The parameters taken for the simulation are:
§ B=14 kbps.
§ f=1 ms
++1 +2 

ã is defined as service arrival parameter


Simulation results

+ $89 .-   / 2*   + :9 .-   /  *   
Simulation results

È 
   
   È 
           
  ,     
1   .  
In general, service providers expect a CAC policy that can produce the
maximal revenue.The previous study on calculating the long term average
revenue can be expressed as follows [1].
R=

]here nu ,nr and nn are the numbers of UGS, rtPS and nrtPS connections
admitted in to the network.
Bu, Br and Bn are the bandwidth assigned to UGS , rtPS and nrtPS
connection respectively.
reru, rerr and rern are defined as the revenue rates of UGS ,rtPS and nrtPS
connections respectively.
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Design a tradeoff between HCDP and ±CBP
]HY?
Giving more priorities to hand off calls
deprived the new incoming new calls from its
own cell.
±CBP may be beyond an acceptable limit
APPROACH
Ë , .  
1. Grade of Service (GoS)
GoSk=±CBPk+Èk.HCDPk, k š {u, r, n}
]here u, r, n denotes UGS, rtPS and nrtPS connections respectively.
Èk= penalty weight for handoff calls relative to new calls
>>
Small GoS means better performance
. Cost function (CÈ)

   4 Ö  ' 4 Ö  & 4 Ö
]here w1+w+w3=1 and different w1, w and w3 means different priority of the services. Therefore
the weights are selected such that w1>w>w3 .

Ë Define a Degradation threshold variable Bth which is optimized according to the


minimum cost function.
Basic Steps

_ Èor a particular arrival rate vary Bth in the


interval  < Bth < Bmin
_ Èor every value of Bth Calculate CÈ.
_ The value Bth that gives the smallest CÈ is
the optimal value of Bth for that arrival rate.
Simulation results

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Simulation results

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Simulation results

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-2 23

Objective
To consider the effect of AMC on CAC
]ith AMC, the modulation type of a user·s
connection can be changed dynamically due
to worsening of the channel and the ongoing
connection might fail due to the change of
modulation.
 ; ,-.  
Assumptions
1. Calls are classified into two types
(a) Real time calls (RT)
(b) ±on-real time calls (±RT)
** RT calls consist of UGS and rtPS connections and ±RT calls consist of
nrtPS connections.This assumptions has little effect on HCDP and
±CBP [].
. Both the types of calls support two different types modulation scheme
(a) Modulation type 1
(b) Modulation type 
3. Calls request are of three types
(a) ±ew call request
(b) Handoff call request
(c) Modulation changed call request
  +42 +2
 
_ Guard Channels are used to give priorities to the
hand off calls and the modulation changed calls.

   

_ Guard channels are fixed i.e. decided in the initial


planning of the network.
_ Èor a varying traffic load network. This is not an ideal
solution for setting priority.
 .
Let C = Total Channel blocks of a BS
Let Cr= required channel blocks of new request.
Let Calloc = currently allocated channel blocks.
Let GC= Amount of Guard Channel
The CAC algorithm is briefly described as below:
 (a new call request arrives)
(Cr <= (C-GC-Calloc))
Admit the connection;

Reject the connection;


 (a handoff call or modulation changed call request arrives)
(Cr <= (C-Calloc))
Admit the connection;

Reject the connection;


-2 23

Èor making the guard channel adaptive to the arrival rates of the different
calls we define a Grade of Service (GoS) parameter which is defined as
2 * =BP_RT1+DP_RT1+BP_±RT1+DP_±RT1
]here
BP_RT = Blocking probability of new RT call
DP_RT = Dropping probability of handoff RT call
BP_±RT = Blocking probability of new ±RT call
DP_±RT1 = Dropping probability of handoff ±RT call
Procedure for AGC-CAC

Èor fixed arrival rate vary the value of GC


from  upto  % of Total channel
Obtain the dropping probabilities and
Blocking probabilities for every value of GC
mvaluate GoS and the choose value of GC
that gives minimum GoS for that arrival rate.
*. -
1. The total available Channel (Slots) for the
network is divided into 3 blocks i.e. C=3.
. Consider two types of modulation scheme
for each types of calls i.e. real
time1(rt1),real time  (rt),non-real time1
(nrt1) and non-real time(nrt)
3. The number of channel blocks required for
a connection is taken as brt1=, brt=1,
bnrt1=4 and bnrt=.
4. The traffic configurations are assumed as shown in Table
       
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Ë A new CAC scheme called ABD-CAC is proposed that gives an
excellent Bandwidth Utilization of the system.
Ë The proposed CAC scheme addresses one of the important issues of
wireless communication of efficient utilization of the limited scarce
bandwidth resources
Ë This is significant in the next generation high bandwidth intensive
multimedia communications.
Ë ABD-CAC is further modified to achieve fairness among new calls and
handoff calls.
Ë A new CAC scheme called AGC-CAC with consideration of AMC
effect on CAC process is proposed.
Ë The proposed CAC scheme serves two purposes
1. It provides an efficient way of deciding the guard channel
which is dynamic and depends on the traffic load.
. It also gives fairness among the different types of calls.
References