Anda di halaman 1dari 24

Y 

  
`    
  
  

   
Answer the following question.
1. Compare the characteristics given and
complete the following table.
a          
Number of chromosome
Gamete formed
Chromosome make up in somatic
cell
Chromosome make-up in gamete

a 
V. what causes identical twins to have the
same genetic make-up?

3. Why is sex of a child determined by the


father?

a 
§licit stud§nts iDea
M Do you ever see someone who down·s
syndrome out there?
ëoday we are going to learn about

3.4 Understanding mutation


2earning outcome
M At the end of the lesson, you are able to
1. State what mutation is
V. State the types of mutation
3. 2ist examples of mutation
4. Identify the causes of mutation
5. State the advantages and
disadvantages of mutation
What is mutation?
M Mutation is a change in the amount or the
chemical structure of DNA.
ëypes of mutation?
a  
    
 
a  
 a 

       
   
   
 a   
    "
 
   #$ 
  % & 
 !
Causes of mutations
1. Agents which cause mutation are called
   
V. Chemical substances
- pesticide, nicotine in cigarrettes, drugs,
nitrous acid and some presevertives,
colouring and artificial sweetener can
cause mutation.
3. Radioactive substances
- Alpha, beta and gamma radiation.
- UV rays and X-rays can cause skin
cells to mutate and this may cause
cancer.
4. ëemperature
-which are too high or low can cause
mutation.
Adv   
 dv  
ÿ

   ÿ# 

  
'
    $  
   
 
 
&


  &  

'  
  
ÿ#&

  ÿ 
  



   



& 
 ÿ$
'  
  &  $
&     



§xercise
M Define the following terms
a) Mutation b) Albinism
M State two diseases caused by
a) chromosome mutations
b) gene mutations
M Name one advantages and one
disadvantages of mutations.
£omework
M Do exercise in science process skills book
on page 30
2earning outcome
M At the end of the lesson, you are able to
1. State what mutation is
V. State the types of mutation
3. 2ist examples of mutation
4. Identify the causes of mutation
5. State the advantages and
disadvantages of mutation
Conclusion
M Mutation is a change in the genetic
information of an individual.
M Mutation can cause genetic disorders in
the descendants such as haemophilia and
albinism.
M Down·s syndrome is caused by an extra
chromosome in the body cell, as a result
of mutation.
º 
Down·s syndrome
M ëhis heredity disease in general is caused
by the presence of one extra
chromosome at chromosome V1 in
somatic cells.
M Incomplete separation of chromosome
during meiosis causes the zygote to have
extra chromosome. 47 in total.
Give characteristics of down·s syndrome
patient?????
º 
Glinefelter·s syndrome
M Patient has one extra X chromosome, i.e
XXY.
M Normally males suffer from this
hereditary disease. ëhey posses some
feminine features and fail to produce
sperms. ëherefore they are infertile.
M Patient have 47 chromosomes and posses
special features i.e narrow shoulder and
small testes.
º 
ëurner·s syndrome
M A person who suffer from this heredity
disease lacks one X chromosome.
M People with ëurner·s syndrome have only
one sex chromosome which is XO.
M Only female suffer from this heredity
disease.
M ëhey posses the following features;
r Infertility
r Short stature
r Do not experience menstrual cycle
º 
Colour blindness
M Sex-linked disease determines by a
recessive gene on the X chromosome

M A colour blind person cannot see or


diffrentiate the colours of red and green.

º 
Albinsm
M ëhe change in the gene that control skin
colour
M ëhe newly produced gens are unable to
produce skin pigment
M a     


 
 
 
  

º 
Sickle cell anaemia
M Disease caused by the change in the
genes that produce hemoglobin
M £emoglobin that has undergone mutation
is inefficient in transporting oxygen.

º     #$  º 


( a
)

&)** 
 *+,* ( a
)

&)**&  *


£aemophilia
M Deficiency of a type of protein in the
blood required for 

 
.

M A patient who has a wound will


experience continuous bleeding or will
take a long time for the blood to clot. ëhis
condition can lead to death.

º 
Y     

Answer the following question.


1. Compare the characteristics given and
complete the following table.
a          
Number of chromosome 46 46
Gamete formed Sperm Ovum
Chromosome make up in somatic 44+XY 44+XX
cell
Chromosome make-up in gamete VV+X and VV+Y VV+X

j 
V. what causes identical twins to have the
same genetic make-up?
M Identical twins originate from one ovum
and one sperm which are the same.

3. Why is sex of a child determined by the


father?
M ëhe sex of a child depends on the type of
X chromosome or Y chromosome in the
sperm which fertilises the ovum.

j