Anda di halaman 1dari 30



Haven͛t you often wished you
could speak a foreign language fluently
and effortlessly? ©     

©ith our programmed and

just      , you too will
join the ranks of hundreds who have
learned a foreign language from our
All you have to do is    in
the following contact details below and
let your     

! ›his characterizes the consistent and rather
enduring traits, tendencies, or preferences
that may differentiate you from another
! ›hey are appropriate characterization of how
you        .
! cognitive style, i.e., preferred or habitual
patterns of mental functioning;
! patterns of attitudes and interests that affect
what an individual will pay most attention to
in a learning situation;
! a tendency to seek situations compatible with
one's own learning patterns; and
! a tendency to use certain learning strategies
and avoid others.
! ›his are     of approaching a
problem or task, modes of operation for
achieving a particular end, or planned designs
for controlling and manipulation certain

|   ›hey are more constant

and predictable.

›hey vary widely within

|     an individual.
|   |    ||
|   |    ||
|        are the
often-conscious steps or behaviors used by
language learners to enhance the
acquisition, storage, retention, recall, and
use of new information.
Strategies can be assessed in a variety of
ways, such as diaries, think-aloud
procedures, observations, and surveys.

  | ||
! |anguage learning strategies are good
  of how learners approach tasks or
problems encountered during the process of
language learning.
! eveloping skills in three areas, such as
metacognitive, cognitive, and socioaffective
can help the language learner build up learner
      whereby he can
take control of his own learning.

  | ||
As Oxford (1990:1) states, language
learning strategies "... 6  6

6 6  6  6



  | ||
Strategy training aims to provide learners with
the tools to do the following:
Ñ Self-diagnose their strengths and weaknesses in language
Ñ Become aware of what helps them to learn the target
language most efficiently
Ñ evelop a broad range of problem-solving skills
Ñ Experiment with familiar and unfamiliar learning strategies
Ñ Make decisions about how to approach a language task
Ñ Monitor and self-evaluate their performance
Ñ ›ransfer successful strategies to new learning contexts
|   !" 
à  6 
general academic skills can be transferred to the
process of learning a foreign language, such as
using flash cards, overcoming anxiety, and
learning good note-taking skills. ›hese courses
sometimes include language learning as a
specific topic to highlight how learning a foreign
language may differ from learning other
academic subjects.
|   !" 
p6    6   
  Also known as consciousness-raising
or familiarization training, this consists most
often of isolated lectures and discussions and is
usually separate from regular classroom
instruction. ›his approach provides students
with a general introduction to strategy
|   !" 

     ›hey may help to
improve specific language skills or present ideas
for learning certain aspects of a particular
foreign language. ›hese workshops may be
offered as non-credit courses or required as part
of a language or academic skills course. ›hey
often combine lectures, hands-on practice with
specific strategies, and discussions about the
effectiveness of strategy use.
|   !" 
 6   Holec (1988)
describes this system as ͞     
  ͟ program that pairs students of
different native language backgrounds for
mutual tutoring sessions.
Requirements of the tutoring sessions are
that students have regular meetings, alternate
roles of learner and teacher, practice the two
languages separately, and devote equal amounts
of time to each language.
|   !" 

   6 6 
  |anguage textbooks provide
strategy-embedded activities and explicit
explanations of the benefits and applications of
the strategies they address.
Because the focus of the activities is
contextualized language learning, learners can
develop their learning strategy repertoires while
learning the target language.
|   !" 

6 "    Rubin (1996)
developed an interactive videodisc program and
accompanying instructional guide aimed at
raising students͛ awareness of learning
strategies and of the learning process in general,
to show students how to transfer strategies to
new tasks and to help them take charge of their
own progress while learning the language.
|   !" 
„„  is a name that has been given to a form of
learner-focused language teaching that explicitly
combines styles and strategy training activities with
everyday classroom language instruction (see
Oxford, 2001; Cohen &  rnyei, 2002).
›he underlying premise of the styles- and
strategies-based approach is that students should
be given the opportunity to understand not only
what they can learn in the language classroom, but
also how they can learn the language they are
studying more effectively and efficiently.
|   !" 
„„  helps learners become more aware of
what kinds of strategies are available to them,
understand how to organize and use strategies
systematically and effectively given their
learning-style preferences, and learn when and
how to transfer the strategies to new language
learning and using contexts.
|   !" 
„„  is based on the following series of
Ñ „     
Ñ „  !   "  
Ñ „  # 
Ñ „    
Ñ    $ „   .
! etermine learners͛ needs and the resources
available for training.
! Select the strategies to be taught.
! Consider the benefits of integrated strategy
! Consider motivational issues.
! Prepare the materials and activities.
! Conduct explicit strategy training.
! Evaluate and revise the strategy training.
  „  % |  ›hese check-lists
are usually not formally scored or tallied; rather,
they serve as focal points for discussion and
enlightenment. You might devise it yourself.
[        „
#  &    #   & #
measures personality styles that correspond to
language learning styles and that learners can
benefit from knowing both the assets and
liabilities of each style. Using this type of style
tests must be done with caution because they
often are culturally biased, have difficult
language, and need to be interpreted with a
grain of salt.
! " |      
!  #     ! ›hese
are impromptu reminders of  for good
language learning and encouragement of
discussion or clarification. A set of successful
styles for language learning might ne
appropriately capsulated in the form of ten
rules or    .
#'! ('")„*'"„ |'!"'")„*'"„
|ower Inhibitions Fear not!
Encourage Risk-taking ive In
Build self-confidence Believe in yourself
evelop Intrinsic Motivation Seize the day
Engage in Cooperative |earning |ove thy neighbor
Use Right-brain Processes Get the BIG picture
Promote Ambiguity ›olerance Cope with the chaos
Practice Intuition Go with your hunches
Process Error Feedback Make mistakes work FOR you
Set Personal Goals Set your own goals
"    (1990) provides the most
comprehensive taxonomy of learning strategies
currently available. ›hese strategies are divided
into what has come to be known as   or
 (§   § 

 §) and   or   
strategies (§     
§   ).
! #        
#'! ('")„*'"„ |'!"'")„*'"„
|ower Inhibitions
Encourage Risk-taking
Build self-confidence
evelop Intrinsic Motivation
Engage in Cooperative |earning
Use Right-brain Processes
Promote Ambiguity ›olerance
Practice Intuition
Process Error Feedback
Set Personal Goals
!å    +
Brainstorming, retelling stories, role-play, paraphrasing,
|ow tolerance of ambiguity finding synonyms, jigsaw techniques, skimming tasks.

Making inferences, syntactic or semantic clue searches,

Excessive impulsiveness scanning for specific information, inductive rule of
Small group techniques, role play, brainstorming, fluency
Excessive effectiveness/caution
Syntactic or semantic clue searches, scanning for specific
information, proofreading, categorizing and clustering
›oo much field dependence activities, information gap techniques.

Integrative language techniques, fluency techniques,

›oo much field independence retelling stories, skimming tasks.
! !        ›he best and
most comprehensive of such instruments is
Rebecca Oxford͛s „     
|   |  „||. It is an extensive
questionnaire covering fifty separate strategies
in six major categories.
! #      |earners
can benefit greatly from your daily attention to
the many little tricks of the trade that you can
pass on them. ©hen those appropriate
moments present themselves in your class, seize
the opportunity to teach your students how to
learn. By doing so, you will increase their
opportunities for strategic investment in their
learning process.