Anda di halaman 1dari 40

Scientific Research

BUDI S. WIGNYOSUKARTO
Development of Science

USAHA MANUSIA

TRIAL & ERROR


Development of Science KEWIBAWAAN & TRADISI
SPEKULASI & ARGUMENTASI
HIPOTESA & EKSPERIMEN

TINGKAT KEHIDUPAN YANG LEBIH BAIK


Science

 Science (Lat. scientia, from scire, “to know”)


adalah rasa keingin-tahuan terhadap alam.
Science biasanya memulai dengan suatu
pertanyaan – tetapi juga mempunyai cara untuk
menjawabnya, sesuai dengan keadaan dan sifat
fenomena alam .
 Science adalah hasil dari suatu studi yang
sistematis terhadap sifat dari suatu fenomena
alam, dengan cara melakukan pengukuran dan
eksperiment yang berulang-ulang, yang
kemudian dapat dikembangkan menjadi suatu
teori yang dapat menjelaskan dan
memperkirakan fenomena alam tersebut.
Perbedaan Pemahaman
Fenomena
Di-Perlu-kan
“Bahasa Bersama”

Matematik
PROSES PERKEMBANGAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN
1. DIDASARKAN ATAS PERKIRAAN
Perkiraan yang tidak ada dasar pembuktiannya
2. BERSUMBER PADA KEKUATAN GAIB
pemasangan komponen bangunan mengikuti patokan yang didasarkan
pada kepercayaan untuk menghindari bencana dan penyakit
3. BERKIBLAT PADA KEWIBAWAAN DAN TRADISI
pola pikir yang disetuskan oleh pemimpin yang berwibawa atau yang
sedang berkuasa baik tokoh agama, politik, dan tokoh lainnya
4. PERKEMBANGAN ILMU MELALUI FAKTOR KEBETULAN
• teori Newton secara kebetulan karena jatuhnya sebuah apel
• Peniciline oleh flemming
• Kina, karen sembuhnya seorang penggembala yang sakit panas sesudah
minum air telaga dimana terendam pohon kina
5. TRIAL & ERROR
Percobaan dan kegagalan dalam usaha untuk menemukan suatu
pengetahuan baru, bersifat untung-untungan, membutuhkan biaya yang
lebih besar
6. KEBENARAN MELALUI SPEKULASI
Kemajuan cari cara trial & error, telah mengenal beberapa alternatif
penyelesaian walaupun belum dilakukan secara mantap
7. ARGUMENTASI ATAS DASAR AKAL SEHAT
argumentasi yang didasarkan pada common sense dan bukan pada
pengetahuan yang telah diakui kebenarannya.
- sering bersifat subyektif
- cenderaung menerima penjelasan yang sejalan dengan prasangka
- cepat merasa puas pada anggapan walaupun belum ada pembuktian
- cepat mengambil kesimpulan pada kejadian yang terjadi secara kebetulan
- kadang-kadang menggunakan penjelasan secara metafisik
8. DEDUKSI DAN INDUKSI
Deduksi: apa yang bagi suatu kelompok berlaku juga bagi setiap
anggota kelompok tersebut
Induksi: apa yang benar bagi suatu anggota kelompok berlaku juga
bagi kelompok tersebut
DEDUKSI
SILOGISME (Aristoteles 400 SM), cara berpikir terdiri atas
3 keputusan:
premis mayor : semua manusia akhirnya mati
premis minor : si X adalah manusia
kesimpulam : si X akhirnya mati
Premis suatu pernyataan yang telah diterima kebenarannya,
kesimpulan merupakan kebenaran khusus yang berlaku untuk
x sebagai anggota kelompok, kesimpulan tidak mungkin
mempunyai pengertian yang lebih luas daripada premisnya.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) keberatan terhadap pendekatan
deduksi. Suatu pengetahuan, kesimpulan atau keputusan
didapat dari suatu pengamatan yang harus dilakukan sendiri
INDUKSI
A. Memiliki dua mata
B. Memiliki dua mata
C. Memiliki dua mata
x Memilik dua mata
Kesimpulan: semua memiliki dua mata
Diperlukan pengamatan pada seluruh anggota,
yang tidak mungkin dilaksanakan, sehingga
tidak selalu sempurna
Deduksi baru dapat dilakukan setelah ada induksi
Premis berasal dari induksi melalui observasi dan pengalaman
MANA YANG LEBIH PENTING
DEDUKSI atau INDUKSI
Pencatatan Induksi Kesimpulan
fakta-fakta

Kesimpulan Deduksi Premis

Deduksi

Many people think: science is basically a fact-gathering activity. It is not.


There is no genuine progress in scientific insight through Baconion Method
of accumulating empirical facts without hypothesis or nature
HIPOTESIS ADALAH SUATU LONCATAN YG MEBUAT ILMU PENGETAHUAN MAJU
FUNGSI ILMU PENGETAHUAN
Kerlinger : The basic aim of science is theory. The basic aim of
science is to explain natural phenomena

A theory is a set of interrelated concepts definition and


propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by
specifying relations among variables, with purpose of explaining
and predicting the phenomena

Penelitian sebagai usaha pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan

Scientific research is systematic, controlled, empirical and


critical investigation of hypothetical position about the
presumed relations among natural phenomena
Prasangka mengenai hubungan yang terjalin
antar fenomena alam, yang dinyatakan dalam
hipotesis, diuji terhadap fakta sebelum diterima
sebagai suatu kebenaran

Penelitian merupakan kegiatan siklis yang tidak adanya


hentinya
Penelitian akan makin meningkatkan ilmu pengetahuan

Penelitian bersifat terbuka sehingga memberi


kesempatan untuk mendapat penilaian, pengujian ulang
dan perbaikan baik dari dalam maupun dari luar
PENELITIAN ILMIAH

TUJUAN:
UNTUK MENERANGKAN DAN MENGUNGKAPKAN HUBUNGAN YANG
SISTEMATIS ANTARA DUA VARIABEL ATAU LEBIH
PROSES PENELITIAN

TEORI
PENYUSUNAN
DEDUKSI LOGIKA
KONSEP & PROPOSISI
INFERENSI LOGIKA

GENERALISASI PENGUJIAN
EMPIRIK HIPOTESA HIPOTESA

PENGUKURAN INTERPRETASI
PENYEDERHANAAN INFORMASI PENYUSUNAN ALAT
DAN PERKIRAAN PARAMETER OBSERVASI PENENTUAN SAMPLE
ability to identify,
formulate, and solve
problems
Formulasi Fenomena
 F=ma
 F = ρ Q (V2 – V1)

V2 = 0
V1

dv
m
dt
  F x
Pemanfaatan Newton II
ILMU PENGETAHUAN
(SAINS DAN SENI)
HELTS untuk menerangkan gejala alam
SAINS, SENI, dan berperan dalam dan/atau gejala
TEKNOLOGI STRATEGIS pengembangan kemasyarakatan tertentu
sains dan
berpotensi memberikan teknologi
dukungan yang besar bagi : strategis
1. kesejahteraan masyarakat
2. kemajuan bangsa
3. keamanan dan ketahanan bagi TEKNOLOGI
perlindungan negara adalah penerapan berbagai disiplin
SAINS, menghasilkan nilai bagi
4. pelestarian fungsi lingkungan hidup
pemenuhan kebutuhan,
kebutuhan,
5. pelestarian nilai luhur budaya bangsa kelangsungan,
kelangsungan, dan peningkatan
6. peningkatan kehidupan kemanusiaan mutu kehidupan manusia
Research Design
What is Research Design ?
 Plan for getting from the research question to
the conclusion
 Blueprint for data collection and interpretation
 Deals with the logic of scientific inquiry
 A strategy for testing hypothesis
 Interpretative work
 Understanding phenomenon
 A plan for conducting scientific research for
the purpose of learning about a phenomenon
of interest
What is Research Design ?
 Overall plan or framework for the
investigation, anticipate all of the
subsequent stages of the research process.
 Decision also be made for:
• Selecting unit of analysis
• Selecting variable to observed and controlled
• How to measured variables
• How to analyze of data
 Good Research Design should rule-out
alternative explanations
Alternative Explanations
 Asian financial crisis in the late
1990’s
• Institutional weaknesses (lack of
transparency in corporate and political
governance) -> cronyism
• Market failure with under-regulation of
financial market
Unit of Analysis
 The entity about whom or which the
researcher gathers information.
 The unit is simply what or who to be
described or analyzed
 Examples of unit:
• Individuals
• Groups
• Artifacts (books, photos, newspapers)
• Geographical units (town, census tract, state)
• Social interactions (dyadic relations, divorces,
arrests)
Hierarchical Modeling
 The incorporation of multiple units of analysis
within a single analytic model
 Aggregation in the analysis
 Analyze individual person using aggregate data to
characterize the groups or collectivities to which
the individuals belong.
 For instance, in an educational study, you might
want to compare student performance with
teacher expectations. To examine this relationship
would require averaging student performance for
each class because each teacher has multiple
students and you are collecting data at both the
teacher and student level.
Variables
 Any entity that can take on different values
 Characteristics of units that vary, taking on
different values, categories, or attributes for
different observations
 May vary over cases, over time or over both
cases and time
 Example:
• Age (range of years)
• Gender (female & male)
• Marital status (single, married, divorced, widowed, etc)
• Level of education (primary, secondary, diploma, etc)
Types of variables
 Explanatory
• Dependent variables
• Independent variables
• Antecedent variables
• Intervening variables
 Extraneous
• Controlled
• Uncontrollled
 Qualitative & Quantitative
Dependent-Independent
 Dependent is variables that the researcher
interested in explaining or describing
 Independent is the explanatory variables that do
the influencing and explaining, also called
predictor variable
 In terms of cause and effect, the independent
variable is the presumed cause and the
dependent variable is the presumed effect
 For example: when the relationship between
educational attainment (years of schooling) and
income is studied, educational attainment is the
IV and income is DV
Antecedent & intervening
 Antecedent variable Type of school
Parent’s income (independent)
occurs prior in time (antecedent)
to both the Academic achievement
independent and (dependent)

dependent variable
Type of school
 Intervening variable (independent)
occurs if it is an
effect of the Amount of homework
(intervening)
independent variable
and a cause of the
Academic achievement
dependent variable (dependent)
Quantitative & Qualitative
 A variable is quantitative if its value or
categories consist of numbers and if
differences between its categories can be
expressed numerically
• Income
 Qualitative variables have discrete
categories, usually designated by words or
labels, and nonnumerical differences
between categories
• Gender  male & female
RQ, Unit analysis and variables
Research
Unit of Analysis Variables
Question/Hypothesis
[What entities are
[With respect to what
[What ones to know] described and
characteristics]
compared]
Are older people more
afraid of crime than Individuals age, fear of crime
younger people ?
Does economic
level of economic
development lower the nations
development, birth rate
birth rate ?
The longer the
length of engagement,
engagement period, the couples
marriage duration
longer the marriage
a student's grade-point
average is directly related grade-point average,
Individuals
to his or her class attendance record
attendance
Relationship
 Types of relationship:
• Among Qualitative variables
• Among Quantitative variables
• Between Qualitative and Quantitative variables
 Properties of relationship:
• The extent of to which variables are associated
or correlated
 Strength
• How changes in one variable are related to
changes in another
 Directionality
 Linearity
Relationship among qualitative variables
Relationship among quantitative variables
 Direction and linearity
• Direction  positive vs negative
• Linearity  linear vs curvilinear
 A positive (direct relationship) between variables exists if
an increase in the value of one variable is accompanied by
an increase in the value of the other, or if a decrease in
the value of one variable is accompanied by a decrease in
the value of the other.
• Sons’ heights and fathers’ heights (the taller the father,
the taller the son will tend to be)
 A negative (inverse relationship) between variables exists
if a decrease in the value of one variable is accompanied
by increase in the value of the other.
• Speed and accuracy (the faster one does something,
the less accuracy one is likely to do it)
Relationship among quantitative variables (2)
Relationship between qualitative and
quantitative variables
Pengolahan dan Analisa
Data
Data Analysis
 In most research the data analysis
involves three major steps, done in
roughly this order:
• Colecting and organizing the data for analysis
(Data Preparation)
• Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics)
• Testing Hypotheses and Models (
Inferential Statistics)
Persiapan Data
 Data preparation involves:
• checking or logging the data in;
• checking the data for accuracy;
• entering the data into the computer;
• transforming the data; and
• developing and documenting a database
structure that integrates the various
measures.
Logging the Data In
 Kemungkinan sumber data:
• Mail surveys returns, Coded-interview data,
Pretest or posttest data, Observational data
 Set up a procedure for logging the
information and keeping track of it
• using standard computerized database
program (Ms. Access)
• using standard statistical programs (SPSS,
SAS, dsb)
Checking data for accuracy
 Check Answer for :
• Are the responses legible/readable?
• Are all important questions answered?
• Are the responses complete?
• Is all relevant contextual information included
(for example, date, time, place, and
researcher)?

Anda mungkin juga menyukai