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Eslam.anes@yahoo.com
¢ 
þ asic unit of structure and function of the
body.
ƛ Highly organized molecular factory.

þ   

ƛ   
ƛ Cytoplasm and organelles.
ƛ Nucleus.
  ¢ 
¢   
s   
þ       are arranged in a bilayer,
 are bilayer, with their
 ,,    
   
 
 
  ,,

þ and their 


   

 
  
 

in
in the middle of the bilayer.
s


þ sss
,
sss
, located on both the
Internal and External Surface.
þ   s
roteins that are Embedded
in the Lipid ilayer

 
 
 

þ ¢   s
þ   
þ  
þ s  
¢  

þ    
 are
are attached to the
membrane proteins or sometimes to the
phospholipids.
Functions:
rotection.
Cell recognition.
Antigens such as the A  antigens on blood
cells.
 
   
þ Forms boundary between the contents of the cell
and its external environment.

þ egulates the passage of substances into and out


of the cell (certain substances).

þ Enables the cell to communicate with the external


environment (receptor proteins that receive
chemical messenger molecules e.g hormones from
other cells).
Ö  

  

Ö  
    
 
 
 

= Cell membranes are a barrier to most


substances, and this property allows
materials to be concentrated inside cells,
excluded from cells, or simply separated
from the outside environment.
environment.

  
  
       

ƛ s   


  
    
 

ƛ   

ƛ !   


Ö  
 
 

 
Ö  
 
 

 
s  
  

þ assive transport is the transport of


substances by a trans-
trans-membrane protein
molecule or through lipid bilayer.

þ No energy required

þ ove due to gradient



 " 
þ A few substances can diffuse directly
through the lipid bilayer part of the
membrane. (such as H2 H2, 22 and C2
C2).
þ Small water-
water-soluble molecules can pass
through channels.
 
   
" 
 
 

 

 


6. Concentration gradient.
2. Solubility in the membrane.
3. Temperature.
4. Surface area of the membrane.
 
 

  
 


6. olecular weight of diffusible substance.
2. Thickness of the membrane.
 

 
ƛ Their transport must therefore be "facilitated" by
(¢   ).
proteins (¢   ).
ƛ It is similar to simple diffusion in the sense that it
does 
 #     
  
 
    
    

   

ƛ  
   transport one substance.
ƛ  
   transport two substances in the
same direction.
ƛ  

   transport two substances in the
opposite directions.
 
   

  


 

 
ƛ Number of carriers.

ƛ Carrier activity.

ƛ resence of carrier inhibitors.

ƛ resence of competing substances.


  
þ smosis is the diffusion of water across a membrane.
þ ater molecules can diffuse freely across a membrane, down
their concentration gradient, so water therefore diffuses from a
dilute to a concentrated solution (more solute molecules).
  
 
       
    

  




 
  

   #  


   

    
    

 


  

þ 

ƛ Solutes in cell more than outside
ƛ utside solvent will flow into cell

þ  

ƛ Solutes equal inside & out of cell

þ  

ƛ Solutes greater outside cell
ƛ Fluid will flow out of cell
      

 
  

þ Active transport is used to move ions or molecules


 
  

  
(low
concentration to high concentration).

þ equires energy.

þ The energy is supplied by s which is released by


breaking AT È AD + i + energy

þ Cells that use a lot of active transport have many


mitochondria to produce the AT needed.

 
  

-  
  

- $   
    
 
 
  

þ s 
 
  
energy is
supplied directly from AT breakdown.
The best example: Na-
Na-K ump.
Ca pump

þ
 
 
  
The
energy is supplied indirectly from AT
AT..
The best example: glucose & amino-
amino-acid
transport in the intestine & kidney.
 
 
s
 s 

þ The sodium-
sodium-potassium pump uses active
transport to move 3 sodium ions to the outside
of the cell for each 2 potassium ions that it
moves in.

þ It is found in all human cells, especially nerve


and muscle cells.

þ ne third of the body3


body3s energy expenditure is
used to operate the sodium-
sodium-potassium pump.
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ð
ð
Š  

ð
  

   

þ  
s  


  


  
 % &%

þ ¢   
   
  

 
  

þ    %    



ƛ 
  

þ        


  

! 
  

ƛ Large molecules (such as proteins, polysaccharides


and nucleotides) and even whole cells are moved in
vesicles..
and out of cells by using membrane vesicles
Endocytosis

 
þ 
  is the transport of materials into a
cell.

þ aterials are enclosed by a fold of the cell


membrane, which then pinches shut to form a
closed vesicle.

þ There are two types of endocytosis:


ƛ pinocytosis
ƛ phagocytosis
s
 
s
 

þ hen the materials and the vesicles are


small (such as a protein molecule) the
process is known as pinocytosis (cell
drinking).
s 
 
s 
 
þ If the materials are large (such as a white blood
cell ingesting a bacterial cell) the process is
known as phagocytosis (cell eating).

þ E.g:
ƛ Kuffer cell in liver engulf worn-
worn-out erythrocytes and
bacteria.
ƛ hite blood cells (neutrophils and macrophages)
ƛ Amoeba engulf a food particle.
s 
 

 

 

þ 
  is the transport of materials
out of a cell. It is the exact reverse of
endocytosis.

þ aterials to be exported must first be


enclosed in a membrane vesicle, usually
from the E and Golgi ody.

 
þ Hormones and digestive enzymes are
secreted by exocytosis from the secretory
cells of the intestine and endocrine glands.

þ Sometimes materials can pass straight


through cells without ever making contact
with the cytoplasm by being taken in by
endocytosis at one end of a cell and
passing out by exocytosis at the other
end.
Exocytosis
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(  
  

   
  
 
   

      
  

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      s
      
 
 


   
 


   


     

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)  
 
  

 
    
 

 


    

  
 
 
         
 

 


    

    
 
 
    
   

 

  

 
 
  

  

  
    
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* s 
 

  
    
   

        
  
   
  
 
    

  
  
    

      
 
 
 
  
   
 
 
  

    
w
 



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+

A. Facilitated diffusion
. smosis
C. Active transport
D.A and
E. None of these
hich of the following defines
the term specificity?
A. movement of molecules by the use of
vesicles
. the energy required to move molecules
C. a group of carrier proteins operating at
their maximum rate
D. carrier transport of a group of closely
related molecules
E. none of these
ater will always move from ___________
situations to _______ situations.

A. Hyperosmotic, hyposmotic
. Hyposmotic, hyperosmotic
C. Hyposmotic, isosmotic
D. Hyperosmotic, isosmotic
hich of the following pairs of molecular
characteristics favors diffusion through the
cell membrane?

A. Large, polar
. Large, non-
non-polar
C. Small, polar
D.Small, non-
non-polar
hich of the following is a way for solutes
in a aqueous solution to move from an area
of high solute concentration to an area of
low solute concentration?

A. Facilitated diffusion
. smosis
C. Active transport
D.A and
E. None of these
Y |Ü 
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