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PREPARED BY:
AADESH KHETERPAL
1507330
M-2
What 
ð RFID stands for radio frequency identification.
It is an automatic identification technology
whereby digital data encoded in an RFID tag
or ³smart label´ is captured by a reader using
radio waves.
ð RFID is similar to bar code technology but
uses radio waves to capture data from tags,
rather than optically scanning the bar codes
on a label.
ð RFID does not require the tag or label to
be seen to read its stored data²that's one
of the key characteristics of an RFID
system item.
ð RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require
physical sight or contact between
reader/scanner and the tag.
What ttutea |tem

ð emetag
ð
meatea
ð emeeade
ð emehtmpute
ð pppatetae
mpeta |tem

 
    
 
   
 


 
  
  


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 |tem mpet
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 peat
|equee mmuat
ð taageeade)adue
mmad
ð eadeadtagmmuatea
ga
ð aegageeatedtheeade
upequetmthehtappat)
ð aegaetutthughthe
atea
ð aegahttag)
ð
ageeeadmdeaega
ed a!mduatedga
"ae#aatte$  ad
%
eeta eddtuaedee!)
ð teaeeethemduatedga
adedthemttheeade
ð eadededethedata
eutetuedtthehtappat
 peat

he
ag

ð Tags can be read-only or


read-write.
ð It has memory to store
additional data,
ð It has environmental
sensors and security
mechanisms.
ð Bytes left unlocked can be
rewritten over more than
100,000 times.

he
ag
Tags can be attached to
almost anything:
pallets or cases of product.
ehicles.
company assets.
items such as apparel,
luggage, laundry etc.
people, livestock, or pets.
high value electronics such
as computers, Ts.
e
ag
he|ame
#a
pe&
§te
ð Tag transmits radio signal.
ð Battery powered memory & radio circuitry.
ð High Read Range (300 feet).

§"ae
ð Tag reflects radio signal from reader.
ð Reader powered.
ð Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet).

heeade
ð Readers (interrogators) can be at a
fixed point such as
Entrance/exit
Point of sale
arehouse.

ð Readers can also be


mobile --
hand-held, or wireless.
Spectrum Regulation

ð The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a


scarce and shared resource .The
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) is a specialized agency . It is a key
regulatory body that allocates spectrum
use and resolves spectrum conflicts.
'()* +(,) +-(./ +)

datage
ð Uses normal CMOS processing ²
basic and ubiquitous.
ð ell suited for applications
requiring reading small
amounts of data at slow
speeds and minimal distances.
ð Penetrates materials well .
(water, tissue, wood, aluminum)
'()* +(,) +-(./ +)

adatage&
ð Does not penetrate or transmit around metals
(iron, steel).
ð Handles only small amounts of data.
ð Slow read speeds.
ð Large Antennas -- compared to higher
frequencies.
ð Minimal Range.
'()* +(,) +-(./ +)

ð Tag construction:
 is thicker (than 13.56 MHz)
 is more expensive (than 13.56 MHz)
 more complex
(requires more turns of the induction
coil)
(.)0 +
datage
ð Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and
ubiquitous.
ð ell suited for applications requiring reading
small amounts of data and minimal distances.
ð Penetrates water.
ð Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the
coil); lower costs to build.
ð Higher data rate .(than 125 kHz--but slower
than higher MHz systems)
ð Thinner tag construction. (than 125 kHz)
(.)0 +
adatage

ð overnment regulated frequency .


(U.S. and Europe recently harmonized)
ð Does not penetrate or transmit around metals.
ð Large Antennas. (compared to higher frequencies)
ð Larger tag size than higher frequencies..
ð Reading Range of § 0.7 m.
o.** +'( +
datage
ð Effective around metals .
ð Best available frequency for
distances of >1m.
ð Antenna size & Tag size smaller.
ð Range: licensed to 20-40' with
reasonable sized.
ð ood non-line-of-sight
communication. (except for
conductive, "lossy" materials)
ð High data rate.
o.** +'( +
adatage
ð Does not penetrate water/tissue.
ð Regulatory issues.

 [50 - [56 MHz under study in Japan.


,/) +
datage
ð Tag size smaller lower
range
ð Range: greater
ð More bandwidth than
lower range UHF
ð Smaller antennas than
lower range UHF
ð High data rate
,/) +
datage
ð ery good non-line-of-sight
communication
ð Can transmit large amounts of data more
quickly than lower frequencies
ð Controlled read zone
(through antenna directionality)
,/) +
adatage
ð More susceptible to electronic noise than lower
UHF bands, e.g. 433 MHz, 860-[30 MHz.
ð Shared spectrum with other technologies--
microwave ovens, T devices, etc.
ð Requires non-interfering, "good neighbor"
tactics.
ð Regulatory approvals still "in process³.
adequedetat )
ppat
"tappat

Material Tracking
e1em e

Read / rite Operations


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Thank you««««..

Niharika Sishodia
(06-ECE-135)