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The major challenges we face in
the world today--
overpopulation, pollution,
deforestation, natural disasters-
-have a critical geographic
dimension.
  
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iany computer programs can handle
geographic data such as those described
below
1.Spreadsheets
1. Spreadsheets (e.g., lotus 1 -2-3,
QuatroPro).
2.Database
2. Database ianagement Systems
(e.g., Oracle, dBase)
3.Computer
3. Computer Aided Design (e.g.,
AutoCad)
4.Cartographic
4. Cartographic packages (e.g. Aldus
Freehand, CarthoGraphix)
5.Photogrammetrical
5. Photogrammetrical software (e.g.
DiS)
6.Image
6. Image Processing Software (e.g.,
ERDAS)
Geometry and attributes of Spatial
objects
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— Perform Geographic Queries
and Analysis
— Improve Organizational
Integration
— iake Better Decisions
— iaking iaps
 

‰ardware
Software
Database
People (Users)
iethods (Policy and Procedures
‰
á
1. Geographic References
2. Vector and Raster iodels

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— áhat iap Data Do I Need?
 Base iaps
 Business iaps and Data
 Environmental iaps and Data
 General Reference iaps
‰
   

— i  
.
 Existing maps
 Field Survey
 Digital data available in
Departments of Survey, iin
Bhawan, Kathmandu, Nepal
 ICIiOD