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Max.

continuous rating : in MW
Turbine speed : 3000 rpm ( N = 120 * f / P )
Steam condition at stop valves : in Kg/cm2 @ °C
Steam flow : in T/hr
No. of stages : ( velocity + HP + LP )
Weight & material of rotor : in T ( NiCrMo steel
forging )
No. of governor valves : 2 ( size : in mm )
Barring gear speed : 2 rpm
Relay oil pressure : in Kg/cm2
Lubrication oil pressure : in Kg/cm2
HP section material : Moly. Van. Steel casting
LP section material : Boiler quality MS plate
• SPEED
• ECCENTRICITY
• DIFFERENTIAL EXPANSION
(ROTOR)
• OVERALL EXPANSION (CASING)
• VIBRATION (4 Channels)
• POSITION INDICATION (6
Channels)
EDDY CURRENT :
It is an electric current induced within the body of a conductor
when that conductor is in a region where there is a change in
magnetic flux. It has the property of opposing the source, that
produces it.

EDDY PROBE :
Eddy current pickup makes use of this property. It has a coil
embedded in its tip which is energized by a constant RF
current which sets up an electro magnetic field between the tip
and the observed surface or target which is made of an
electrically conductive material. Eddy currents are induced in
the target surface which consume some energy from the
electromagnetic field that produces it. Due to this, there is a
variation in the energizing current proportional to the probe –
• A toothed wheel with 30 teeth is attached to the turbine shaft
at the exciter end.
• An eddy current pickup is mounted at close proximity to the
wheel and is excited by its driver circuit.
• When the teeth get closer to the pickup, more eddy currents
are induced in it and hence, more loading effect on the coil and
less voltage signal output
• When the pickup senses the slots, due to more distance
between the target and the pickup coil, less loading effect and
more voltage sensed
• Hence, passage of a slot and a tooth represent a cycle (a high
+ a low) Since there are 30 of them, for one rotation of the
wheel, 30 such pulses / cycles are produced which are fed to a
F/V circuit conditioned into voltage and current outputs suitable
Speed = Pulse per second rps = P x 60 rpm
No. of teeth T
EXAMPLE :
Supposing the turbine rotates at 3000 rpm. For 1 min = 3000
revolutions
For 1 sec = 3000/60 = 50 revolutions (or) 3000 rpm = 50 rps
We know for 1 revolution, the speed sensor output is 30 pulses
( T = 30 )
For 50 revolutions, P = 50 x 30 = 1500 pulses

Therefore, speed = P x 60 rpm = 1500 x 60 rpm =


3000 rpm
MATCHED
CABLE
Rotor speed has a direct relationship with the
frequency of the output current generated from
EDDY
the alternator.
PROBE

We know,
f = PN
120
And that, freq. = 50 Hz and minimum possible No.
of poles = 2, which gives the speed at 50 Hz as,

N = 120f = 120 x 50 = 3000 rpm


P 2 TURBINE
SHAFT

Hence, speed can be calculated from the output TOOTHED WHEEL


frequency; or, vice versa.
Range : 0 – 4000 rpm

EDDY CONVERTER PULSE F/V O/P RE


PICKUP SHAPER CONVERTE AMPLIFIE C
R R

V/I
CONVERTE
Current O/P
R
to Data
Logger

SPEED MEASUREMENT CHANNEL


SCHEMATIC
EDDY
PROBE

Shaft eccentricity is the radial motion


of the shaft with respect to the bearing
or casing. In other words, it’s the out
of turn excursion of the shaft around
its axis.
A high frequency RF signal is
generated by the
Oscillator/Demodulator, sent through
the extension cable and radiated from
the Probe tip. Eddy currents are
generated in the surface of the shaft.
The driver demodulates the signal and
provides a modulated DC Voltage
where the DC portion is directly
proportional to gap (distance) and the
AC portion is directly proportional to
radial vibration (Eccentricity).
In this way, an Eddy Current
Range : 0 – 500 μm
p-p

N ≥ 300
RPM

EDDY INPUT
PROBE AMP. DC
CONVERTER AMP. E > 100
INV. μm
AMP

FW
AC AMP. RECT
REC
LPF O/P
AMP.

V/I
ECCENTRICITY CHANNEL CONVERTE CURRENT
R O/P
SCHEMATIC
Differential Expansion is the
Matche measure of relative axial
d Cable expansion between turbine shaft
and the casing which occurs due
B to the presence of different
temperature gradients and due the
rotor, cylinder, blades etc., being
Collars made of different materials.
Differential Expansion is
considered positive when the shaft
moves (i.e., the shaft expands
more than the casing) towards the
alternator and negative when it
moves towards the turbine.
Eddy Probe
(A) The movement of the shaft is
sensed by the eddy current probes
by means of the probe-collar
distance variation. as the distance
Range : - 4 mm to + 8
mm

When DE occurs, the converter output of one probe say, B is less


(distance, less); while the output of other (A) is more as the distance
between the probe and the target is more. Output of these converters
are given to respective input amplifiers whose outputs are fed to a
summing amplifier. The output amplifier further conditions the output
to the required level to be fed to the indicator, recorder and the data
logger.

A A A

A+
B
REC

B B B

Probe Convert Input Amp. Summing Output


er Amp. Amp.
D.E ≤ -2.4 mm / ≥ +3.4
DIFF. EXPANSION CHANNEL
mm
SCHEMATIC
Vibration refers to mechanical
oscillations about an equilibrium point.
Vibration is occasionally
desirable. For example the motion of a
tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind
instrument or harmonica, or the cone
of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration,
necessary for the correct functioning of
the various devices.
More often, vibration is
undesirable, wasting energy and
creating unwanted sound--noise. For
example, the motions of engines,
electric motors, or any mechanical
device in operation are usually
unwanted vibrations. Such vibrations
can be caused by imbalances in the
rotating parts, uneven friction, the
CONNECTOR
Vibration measurement is done all the
bearings of the turbo alternator set
except the last bearing (No.5) at the
SPRIN exciter end.
G

The detector is a velocity type


transducer with a moving coil in a
MOVING
COIL STATIONARY permanent magnetic field. When the
MAGNET bearing pedestal vibrates, the seismic
mass will move relative to the
housing, thereby moving the
CASE measuring coil in and out of the
magnetic field. This induces an emf in
the coil which is proportional to
velocity of the vibration.

The induced emf is integrated,


Range : ( 0 – 250 μm pk-pk )

REC

VIBRATION AC AMP, PEAK O/P


PICKUP
∫Integrato DETECTOR AMP.
r

VIB ≥ 75 μm
V/I
CONVERTER
CURRENT O/P
TO DATA
LOGGER

VIBRATION CHANNEL
SCHEMATIC
Range : 0 – 40
mm
Overall expansion is the expansion of
turbine casing as measured at the front
ACTUATOR FROM TURBINE pedestal which expands along with the
CASING AT FRONT PEDESTAL
SIDE
casing with respect to the foundation.
It’s measured with a linear
potentiometer sensor.

REC

0 10 20 30 40 mm O.E ≥ 10
mm
Speeder gear and load limiting CIES (Combined Isolation Emergency
gear positions are sensed by Stop valves) and Governor valve
rotary potentiometers. The positions are sensed by linear
rotary motion being transmitted potentiometers. The linear motion of
through gear mechanism to the their shaft transmitted by suitable
wiper of the pot. actuator mechanisms.
• Overall expansion and linear position indication (of valves)
are these
days sensed by LVDTs, instead of potentiometers

• Vibrations are also sensed by piezoelectric accelerometer


sensors
( Q = F * d ; F = m * a. Hence, Q = m * a * d)

• Speed sensors in a majority voting system (2 out of 3, for


redundancy
and to avoid spurious actuations) initiating over speed trip,
instead of
mechanical trip rings

• These are the few improvements that have come up since the
initial
days.