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Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean

Development & Climate

Brown Coal ( Lignite ) Best Practices


Work Shop

India - Country
Perspective
23-27 th June2008
THE INDIAN DELEGATION

 NTPC Delegates :

 I.K.Rajdeva, Additional General Manager, NTPC Ltd.

 A.Nagasundaram, Dy. Gen. Manager, NTPC Ltd.

 Saju K Sebastian, Dy. Gen. Manager, NTPC Ltd.

 P.S.Chatterjee, Chief Design Engineer, NTPC Ltd.

 CESC Delegates :

 Souvik Dutta, Station Manager, Southern generating Station, CESC Ltd .

 Kushal Bhowmick, Senior Manager ( Environment), CESC Ltd.


Robust Economic Growth – THE
DRIVER

 THE GDP GREW AT 9.6% DURING FISCAL 2007,


AVERAGE RATE OF GROWTH OVER LAST 4 YEARS IS
8.6%.
 GDP GROWTH DURING 2008-09 IS EXPECTED TO BE
around 9%.
 GDP GROWTH TARGET OF 9% SET BY GOVT. DURING
XI PLAN (2007-2012).
 ELECTRICITY IS AN IMPORTANT INPUT TO THE MARCH
OF PROGRESS OF ANY COUNTRY TODAY.
 IT IS THEREFORE NATURAL THAT THE GROWTH IN
ELECTRICITY GENERATION & AVAILABILITY, BE
COMMENSURATE WITH GROWTH IN GDP.
Existing Generating Capacity- March
2008
Fuel wise break-up Sector wise break-up (MW)
(MW)

Thermal 92,426 63.8% Private


Sector
Hydro 36,033 24.9% 14%

Nuclear 4,120 2.8% Central


State
Sector
Sector
Renewable 12,194 8.5% 34%
52%

TOTAL 144,773 100.0%


(Excluding captive capacity of 14636 MW connected to
grid)
(All figures provisional from CEA)

Total generation in 2007-08 – 704.45


BU
PLF (%)

48
53
58
63
68
73
78
1985-86 52
.4
1986-87 56
53 .5
.2
1987-88

1988-89
55
1989-90
56
.5
1990-91 53
.9
1991-92
55
1992-93 .3
57
1993-94 .1
61
1994-95
60
1995-96
63
64
1996-97 .4

Y EARS
1997-98 64
.7
1998-99
64
1999-2000 .6
67
.3 69
2000-01

2000-02
69 72
2002-03 .9 .2

2003-04
72
.7 74
2004-05 .8

2005-06 74
.3
2006-07 77
ALL INDIA PLANT LOAD FACTOR (%)

. 03
2007-08
- COAL FIRED THERMAL POWER STATIONS

78
. 61
Energy Shortage
9.8%
750 737
REQUIREMENT AVAILABILITY 9.6%
691
700
8.3%
650 631
665
591 7.3%
600 624
559 7.1%
546 8.8%
550 579
5237.5%
7.8%
507 548
500 519
498
483
450 467
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

DURING 2007-08, PEAKING SHORTAGES WERE 16.6%


Per capita Consumption remains
low
In
665 2006
In d ia NATIONAL ELECTRICITY
618
Eg yp t
1 ,4 6 5 POLICY TARGETS PER CAPITA
C h in a AVAILABILITY OF 1000 KWH
1 ,6 8 4
B r a z il BY 2012
2 ,3 4 0
R u s s ia
6 ,4 2 5
Ge rm a ny
7 ,4 4 2
Japan
8 ,4 5 9
USA
1 4 ,2 4 0
W o r ld A v e r a g e
2 ,7 0 1

Figures in kwh

Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2007-08 – Data for 2004


Projected Capacity
Requirements

778 GW

425 GW

220 GW
132 GW

2007 2012 2022 2032


Source: Integrated Energy Policy
GOI

Large Capacity addition required to meet the


demand
CAPACITY ADDITION EXPECTED DURING 11th PLAN
(2007-12) (Conventional) – 78,520 MW

HYDRO,
NUCLEAR,
15,627MW,
3,380MW, 4%
21%

THERMAL,
59,5130MW,
75%

Thermal – 59,513MW
( Coal – 51,890 MW, Gas- 5343 MW, Lignite- 2280 MW)

Additional capacity expected : New Renewables –


14,000 MW
: Captive – 12,000 MW
11TH PLAN PROGRAMME (2007-2012)
(Thermal+Hydro+Nuclear)
 Proposed : 78,577 MW
 Expected : 78,520MW
 9,263 MW capacity already commissioned
 60,214 MW (77%) under construction
 10,950 MW - Letter of awards yet to be placed
 Fuel Availability for 96% of coal based stations – tied up
 88% hydro capacity under construction /commissioned
 All gas based projects under execution or gas tied up
from local sources
 Additional 13,000 MW gas based projects identified –
subject to gas availability
11TH PLAN PROGRAMME
NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY PLANTS

 Installed Capacity (as on 31.03.2008)- 11125 MW


 11th Plan target- 14,000 MW consisting of
• Wind Power - 10,500 MW
• Biomass Power
Baggasse
Co-generation - 2,100 MW
• Small Hydro
(up to 25 MW) - 1,400 MW
CAPACITY ADDITION DURING XIITH
PLAN
(2012 - 2017)

PLAN TOTAL THERMA HYDRO NUCLEAR


CAPACITY L
ADDITION
PLANNED
(MW) (MW)
(MW) (MW)
XIITH 82200 40200 30000 12000
Energy Efficiency
NATIONAL THERMAL
POWER STRAGTEGY
GOVERNMENT’S CORPORATION
/
INITIATIVE FOR EFFICIENCY
IMPROVEMENT LTD.
- A PROFILE

Setting the Scene today for a future-


oriented Sustainable Energy
production
INDIA’s ENERGY PROGRAMS AND POLICIES

 Improving energy efficiency


 Promoting Hydro and renewable energy
 Power sector Reforms
 Promotion of Clean coal technology
 Energy infrastructure Development
 Coal Washing
 Environmental Quality Management
DRIVERS FOR HIGHER PLANT
EFFICIENCY
 Demand of power is set to grow with growing
economy
 Large capacity needs to be added to meet the
projected growth in demand
 With Electricity Act 2003 coming into vogue, the
power market is set to attract a lot of investors and
competition
 With tariff based bidding becoming a norm, utilities
have to bring down their cost of generation to
remain competitive
 Increased emphasis on Environmental
considerations for clean technology
 CDM opportunities arising out of global warming
concerns
 Fuel, Land & Water availability becoming more and
more difficult
 Efficiency enhancement feasible in future plants as
well as existing plants
Major Initiatives ……
 Improvement in efficiency and performance of
existing generating units through :
 Renovation and Modernisation schemes with emphasis on
Energy Efficiency
 Partnership in excellence.
 Establishment of Energy Efficiency cells at thermal power
stations ( 37 cells in operation)
 Energy Conservation through legislation
 Thermal Power Stations notified as Designated consumers
 Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources
 15,627 MW Capacity of Hydro Power planned in XIth
Plan
 30,000 MW Capacity of Hydro Power planned in XIIth
Plan
 Retiring 5000 MW old capacity with low efficiency in
11th Plan
Major Initiatives …..

Energy Conservation Act 2003 (EC Act)


 Designated Consumers Notified
 Thermal Power Station
 Appoint Energy Manager
 Get Energy Audits conducted by Accredited Energy
Auditors
 Implement techno-economic viable recommendations
given by Accredited Energy Auditor
 Comply with norms of specific energy consumption
fixed
 Submit report on steps taken
Major Initiatives……

 Adoption of Clean Coal Technologies


– Supercritical / Ultra supercritical Technology
– Circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC)
– Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Suitable
for Indian Coal
 Presently Working to develop a Demonstration Project for IGCC
along with suitable Partner, development of core technologies
for gasifier & Gas cleaning systems suitable for High Ash Indian
Coal.
Major Initiatives …..

 Ultra Mega Power Projects(4000MW


capacity) based on Supercritical Technology
at various pithead and coastal locations.
Envisaging Mandatory Higher size thermal
units (660/800 MW) with Supercritical
Parameters.

 It is estimated to commission
 10 Nos. units of 660MW (XIth Plan)
 2 Nos. units of 800MW (XIth Plan)
 12 Nos. units of 660MW (XIIth Plan)
 31 Nos. units of 800MW (XIIth Plan)
Major Initiatives …..

• Supercritical Units of 660 MW Rating under construction


• Supercritical Units of 800 MW Rating with higher steam
temperature conditions under consideration

Parameter 660MW 800MW

Main Steam 247 247


Pressure Kg/cm2
Main Steam 535/565 565
Temperature oC
Reheat 565/593 593
Temperature oC
The Efficiency Roadmap

43%

42%
Gross Efficiency, GCV Basis

320/600/620
(800-1000 MW)
41% 280/600/620
(800-1000 MW)
247/565/593

40% (660/800 MW)


247/537/565
(660 MW)
39%
170/537/537
(500 MW)
38%

‘00 ‘02 Xth ‘07 XIth ‘12 XIIth ‘17 XIIIth ‘22
Plan Plan Plan Plan
Lower Plant Efficiency in India

The reported efficiency of Indian power


plants is generally lower as compared to
efficiency of plants abroad, primarily due
to :

• Poorer condenser vacuum due to hot climatic


conditions
• Higher unburnt carbon losses in boiler due to
low grade high ash Indian coal
• Efficiency is reported on HHV basis of coal
(same as the practice followed in USA) as
against LHV used elsewhere.
Typical variation due to above = 3.0 to 4.0 % points (Approx.)
Heatrate Improvement over the
Years

Heatrate Improvement Over The Years


P=247ata
14
MST=565
P =247 ata
12
RHT=593
MST=537
P=170ata RHT=565
10 P==17
170
0ata MST=537
ata
MST=537 RHT=565
8 P=170ata
MST
RH T==53537
7
MST=537
6 P==15
150
0ataata RHT=537
MST
MST==53537
7
4 RHT
RHT= =53
537
7
P
P==1130 ata
30ata
2 MST
MST= =53
537
7
RHT
RHT= =53
537
7
0
200 LMZ (1978) 200 KWU (1979) 500 KWU (1982) 500 KWU Mod 500 High RH 660 SC (2004) 660/800 SC
(1998) (2006) (2008)
Major Initiatives Contd …..

 Member of Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum


(CSLF)
 Participating in FutureGen Project of USA
 275 MW coal fired Zero Emission power plant
 India contributing US$10 Million
 Participating in Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) for Clean
Development and Climate
 The Indian Project Proposals in the TF Action plan
 Inputs like case studies & contact details of experts in areas of
India’s interest.
 Work on Efficiency improvement of two thermal power
plants namely Ropar and Kolaghat thermal Power station
already started with support of USAID.
Major Initiatives …..

 Mapping of Thermal Power Stations under


Indo-German Programme
 33 thermal units mapped ( 31 thermal stations)
 85 Thermal Power Stations targeted

 Energy Conservation Awards


 National Award for improving performance
of Thermal Power Stations
 Awards for reducing T & D losses.
Efficiency Improvement through
Renovation and Modernization

A COST EFFECTIVE APPROACH ……


CONTINUE GETTING THE BEST OUT OF EXISTING
FLEET
NEED FOR R&M – EXISTING
UNITS

 Improvement in performance parameters –


PLF, Availability, heat rate/efficiency,
auxiliary power consumption, partial
loading & forced outage.
 Restore derated capacity
 Extension of economic life.
 Obsolescence & non availability of spares
(eg C&I)
 Environmental issues/other statutory
requirements.
 Safety requirements.
POTENTIAL FOR EFFICIENCY
INTEGRATED R&M
 A large number of 200/250 MW & some 500 MW Units are in
operation for more than 15/20 years and have considerable
potential for life extension & efficiency improvement

Total No. of Nos. of Units as potential


Units Candidate
Age >15 years >20 years

200/210 MW Units 53 -- 53
(LMZ design)
200/210 MW units 88 37 12
(KWU design)
500 MW units 35 12 2
FUTURE APPROACH TOWARDS
R&M
 Shift in focus from ‘Generation Maximization
to ‘Plant Performance Optimization’ – Older
units have many more opportunities to reduce
heat rate than newer units.
 Retirement of very old small size low
efficiency units and replacement with higher
efficiency units.
 Use of high end technology solutions for
efficiency enhancement to manage rising
costs & reduce carbon, foot prints, e.g.,
 Steam flow path modification
 Steam turbine and boiler upgrades
 Improved plant control
FUTURE APPROACH TOWARDS
R&M …

 Additionality in efficiency improvement


 Efficiency improvement as a result of
normal R&M, aims at to minimising losses
( to approach design values)
 Efficiency improvement through
technology intervention/enhanced R&M,
targeting efficiency enhancement even
beyond design value.
Parameters For Performance
Monitoring

 Unit Heat Rate


 Unit Auxiliary Power consumption
 Unit Specific secondary fuel oil
consumption
 Unit Specific coal consumption
 Plant Load Factor (PLF)
 Planned Maintenance, Forced outage and
Operating availability
Projects for the Task Force
Sl. No. Project Title Proposing
Country

1 Best Practices for Power Generation Activity Plan USA, JAPAN,


KOREA
2 Best Practices for Transmission and Distribution Activity USA
Plan
3 Best Practices for Demand Side Management Activity USA
Plan
4 Energy Regulatory & Market Development Forum AUSTRALIA
5 Trade Exhibitions/Conferences and Trade Missions USA
6 Hydroelectric Generation Best Practices USA
7 Combustion Optimization in Coal Based Power Plants INDIA
8 Implementation of Artificial Intelligent Soot Blowing INDIA
System for Improving the Steam Generator Efficiency by
Increasing the Effectiveness of Soot Blowers.
9 SOx Reduction Technologies in Flue Gas INDIA
10 Risk Evaluation and Prioritization (REAP) for INDIA
Maintenance and Renovation & Modernization (R&M) of
Power Plants
11 Life Extension & Remaining Life Assessment Of Power INDIA
Fly Ash Utilization Record – NTPC
AS A SAMPLE CASE ONLY

Highest ever utilisation of Fly Ash a testimony to ecology


preservation

25
22.3
Ash Utilisation in Million tonnes

19.6
20

15
12.7

10
7.5
5.7
5 3.7
3.0
0.3
0
1991-92 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
Afforestation Efforts – A Priority for
sustenance of HUMANITY!!
Forest Banks concept
NTPC has created a Green wealth of 18.2
Million Trees by Summer 2007
Plantation of 1.25 Million trees around
Ramagundam Project has resulted in
Summer Peak temperature reduction
by 3 deg C
Ash Mound Reclamation and Dry ash
disposal system