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Define the term computer and discuss the four

basic computer operations: input, processing,
output, and storage.
Define data and information
Explain the principal components of the computer
and their use
Describe the use and handling of floppy disks and
hard disks
Discuss computer software and explain the
difference between system software and
application software.

dentify several types of personal computer

application software.
Discuss computer communications channels and
equipment and the nternet and World Wide Web.
Explain how to purchase, install, and maintain a
personal computer, a notebook computer, and a
handheld computer.
Define e-commerce.

computer storage devices

information processing cycle formatting
data hard disk
information compact disc
computer users, end users, or users
systems software
computer program or software
application software
input devices
mouse network
central processing unit nternet
memory World Wide Web
output devices URL
monitor electronic commerce



 is an electronic device, operating
under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory unit, that can accept data (input),
manipulate the data according to specified rules
(process), produce information (output) from the
processing, and store the results for future use.
Generally, the term is used to describe a collection
of devices that function together as a system.



?omputers can perform four general
operations that make up the  

   - input, process, output,
and storage.

àll computer processing requires 

collection of raw facts, figures, and symbols,
such as numbers, words, images, video, and
sounds, given to a computer during the input

 is data that is organized,
meaningful, and useful.


¢eople who use the computer directly or use

the information it provides are called

      or sometimes,



÷or a computer to perform operations, it
must be given a detailed set of instructions
that tells it exactly what to do. These
instructions are called a 





! is any hardware
component that allows you to enter data,
programs, commands, and user responses
into a computer.




#$% contains the
electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The
?¢U is made up of the 

. The 
interprets the
instructions. The  

performs the
logical and arithmetic processes. On personal
computers, the $ is designed into a chip called a
 . High-end   contain 42 million
transistors and are capable of performing some
operations 10 million times in a tenth of a second, or in
the time it takes to blink your eye.

0 , also called   or ' 0,
consists of electronic components that store data including
numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics, and sound. àny
data to be processed must be stored in memory. The
amount of memory in computers typically is measured in
kilobytes or megabytes. One  "
#( (›%equals
approximately 1,000 memory locations and one "

#0 0›%equals approximately one million memory
, or "
, usually stores one
character. Therefore, a computer with 96 MB or memory
can store approximately 96 million characters. One
megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text
u  @ 


! make the information resulting
from processing available for use.
  used with computers can be either impact
printers or nonimpact printers.
‡ àn  
 prints by striking an inked ribbon
against the paper. (Example: dot matrix printer)
‡ ) 
 , such as ink-jet printers and laser
printers, form characters by means other than striking a
ribbon against paper.



 !, also called  *  
 !, are used to store
instructions and data when they are not being used in
memory. Two types of auxiliary storage more often used
on personal computers are floppy disks and hard disks.
?ompact discs also are common.


is the process of preparing a disk (floppy disk, ?D, or

hard disk) for reading and writing by organizing the disk into
storage locations called tracks and sectors.
 is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the
surface of the disk. The disk¶s storage locations then are divided into
pie-shaped sections, which break the tracks into small arcs called
 is capable of holding 512 bytes of data. à typical floppy disk
stores data on both sides and has 80 tracks on each side of the
recording surface with 18 sectors per track.
The time required to access and retrieve data is called the 

a @ 
ànother form of auxiliary storage is a   . à hard
disk consists of one or more rigid metal platters coated
with a metal oxide material that allows data to be
recorded magnetically on the surface of the platters.
àlthough hard disks are available in removable cartridge
form, most disks cannot be removed from the computer.
às with floppy disks, the data is recorded on hard disks
on a series of tracks. The tracks are divided into sectors
hen the disk is formatted. The   in a desktop
computer normally resides permanently inside the
system unit²it is not portable.

#+%, also called an optical disc, is a flat, round,
portable, metal storage medium that usually is 4.75 inches in
diameter and less than 1/20 of an inch thick.
 à +,'u0, or  
 ,  , is a compact disc
that uses the same laser technology as audio ?Ds for recording music..
t can contain audio, text, graphics, and video (Read-only)
 à +,'# 
,  " % is a multisession compact disc
onto which you can record your own items such as text, graphics, and
 à +,' (compact disc-rewritable) is a erasable disc you can
write on multiple times.
 à +-+,'u0(digital video disc-ROM) is a very high capacity
compact disc capable of storing from 4.7 GB to 17GB²more than
enough to hold a telephone book containing every resident in the
united states.


  is the key to productive use of
computers. With the correct software, a computer can
become a valuable too. Software can be categorized into
two types:



  consists of a program to control the operations of
computer equipment.
 nstructions in the   

 tell the computer how to perform
the functions of loading, storing, and executing an application program
and how to transfer data.
 When a computer is turned on, the operating system is loaded into the
computer¶s memory from auxiliary storage. This process is called
 Today, most computers use an operating system that has a    
 #.$%that provides visual cues such as icon symbols
to help the user.


 consists of programs that tell a computer
how to produce information.
  is used to create, edit, format, and
print documents.

  allows the user to add,
subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and
columns of numbers.
  allows the user to enter, retrieve, and
update data in an organized and efficient manner.

 allows the user to create
documents called slides to be used in making presentations.

 is a collection of computers and devices
connected via communications media and devices such
as cables, telephone lines, modems, or other means.
 à network that connects computers in a limited geographic
area, such as a school computer laboratory, office, or group of
buildings, is called a   
 #/ )%
 à network that covers a large geographical area, such as one
that connects the district offices or a national corporation, is
called a  
 # )%
The world¶s largest network is the 
, which is a worldwide
collection of networks that links together millions of computers by
means of modems, telephones lines, cables, and other communications
devices and media.
Reasons for using the nternet:
 Sending messages to other connected users (e-mail)
 àccessing a wealth of information, such as news, maps, airline
schedules, and stock market data
 Shopping for goods and services
 Meeting or conversing with people around the world
 àccessing sources of entertainment and leisure, such as online
games, magazines, and vacation planning guides

One of the more popular segments of the nternet is the  ",
also called the " which contains billions of documents called Web pages.
 à "  is a document that contains text, graphics, sound, and/or
video, and has built-in connections, or hyperlinks, to other Web
 à "
 is a related collection of Web pages.
 ou access and view Web pages using a software program called a "
"   .
 à Web page has a unique address, called a $ ' /
 http:// stands for  

 (communication standards
used to transfer pages on the Web.
à Web page has a unique address, called a $ ' /
#$'/% The URL consists of a protocol, domain name and sometimes the path
to a specific Web page or location in a Web page. Most Web page URLs begin

&& stands for  


 (communication standards
used to transfer pages on the Web).
 The  identifies the Web site, which is stored on a Web
 à " ! is a computer that delivers (serves) requested Web pages.

protocol domain name



When you conduct business activities online, you are participation 

  also known as ,  These activities
include shopping, investing, and any other venture that represents a
business transaction. Today, three types of e-commerce exist:
  #›0% involves the sale of goods to the
general public.
  #0% involves one consumer selling
directly to another
" #›0›% provides good and services to to other




1. Determine what application products you will use
on your computer.
2. Before buying a computer, do some research.
3. Look for free software.
4. f you are buying a new computer, you have
several purchasing options: buying from your
school bookstore, a local computer dealer, a local
large retail store, or ordering by mail via
telephone or the World Wide Web.

Speed of the processor

Size and types of memory (RàM) and storage (hared
disk, floppy disk, ?D-ROM, ?D-RW, DVD-ROM, Zip®
nput/output devices included with the computer (e.g.,
mouse, keyboard, monitor, printer, sound card, video
?ommunications devices include with the computer
(modem, network interface card)
àny software included with the computer


5. f you are buying a used computer stick with name
6. Use a worksheet to compare computers, services, and
other considerations.
7. Be aware of hidden costs.
8. ?onsider more than just price.
9. àvoid restocking fees.
10. Select an nternet service provider (S¢) or online
service provider (OS¢)


11. Buy a computer compatible with the ones you
use elsewhere.
12. ?onsider purchasing an onsite service agreement
13. Use a credit card to purchase your new computer.
14. àvoid buying the smallest computer available.


1. ¢urchase a notebook computer with a sufficiently
large active-matrix screen.
2. Experiment with different pointing devices and
3. Make sure the notebook computer you purchase
has a ?D-EROM or DVD-ROM drive.
4. f necessary, upgrade memory and disk storage at
the time of purchase.


5. f you are going to use your notebook computer
on an airplane, purchase a second battery.
6. ¢urchase a well-padded and well-designed carrying
7. f you travel overseas, obtain a set of electrical and
telephone adapters.
8. f you plan to connect your notebook computer to a
video projector, make sure the notebook computer is
compatible with the video projector.


1. Determine the applications you plan to run on
your handheld computer.
2. What do you want to pay?
3. ¢ractice with the touch screen and handwriting
recognition before deciding on a model.
4. Decide if you want a color screen.
5. ?ompare battery life.
6. ?heck out the accessories.


7. Decide if you want additional functionality.
8. s synchronization of data with other handheld
computers, personal computers, or printers
9. f you travel often, then consider e-mail and Web
access from your handheld computer.


1. Read the installation manuals before you start to install
your equipment.
2. Do some research.
3. Set up your computer in a well-designed work area,
with adequate workspace around the computer.
4. nstall bookshelves.
5. Have a telephone outlet and telephone or cable
connection near your workplace so you can connect
your modem and/or place calls while using your


6. While working at your computer, be aware of health
7. Obtain a computer tool set. ?omputer tool sets include
any screwdrivers and other tools you might need to
work on your computer.
8. Save all the paperwork that comes with your computer.
9. Record the serial number of all your equipment and


10. ?omplete and send in your equipment and software
registration cards.
11. Keep the shipping containers and packing materials for
all you equipment.
12. dentify device connectors.
13. nstall your computer in an area where you can
maintain the temperature and humidity.
14. Keep your computer area clean.
15. ?heck your home or renter¶s insurance policy.


1. Start a notebook that includes information on your
2. Before you work inside your computer, turn off the power
and disconnect the equipment from the power source.
3. Keep the area surrounding your computer dirt and dust
4. Back up important files and data. ¢? Owner¶s
5. ¢rotect your computer from viruses. Outline

6. Keep your computer tuned.

7. Learn to use diagnostic tools.
ð u

To complete these exercises, start your browser,

click the àddress box, and then enter When the
ntroduction to ?omputers Web page displays,
follow the instructions to the exercises.

 ?lick on the ð   link on the left of
the web page to get back to the above link.

True/÷alse, Multiple ?hoice, and Short

Record your answers in a Word
document named ¢

  . Save this document
in a sub-folder in your B?à folder of
your U drive named ð   .






u    ° 

?lick ¢   . ànswer each question,

enter your first and last name at the bottom of
the page, and then click the Grade Test button.
When the graded practice test displays on your
screen, click ¢rint on the ÷ile menu to print a
hard copy. ?ontinue to take practice tests until
your score is 80% or better.  



# $
?lick ?
   . Read the instructions,
enter your first and last name at the bottom of
the page, and then click the ¢Là button.



?lick ?

¢ ?   . Read the
instructions, and then enter your first and last
name. ?lick the ¢Là button. Work the
crossword puzzle. When you are finished,
click the Submit button. When the crossword
puzzle re-displays, click the ¢rint button.



ÿ   #  

?lick    . ?lick the ?

   , and then take a tour of the
! " 
 . When you are
finished, close the window, and then use Word
to prepare a brief report on your tour. !  

     listed in the Web Guide and

print the main page of each.  




è   a 

?lick  #  $ ¢rint a copy of the

Scavenger Hunt page; use this page to write
down your answers as you search the web.



?lick     to learn search techniques

that will help make you a research expert.
Hand in your completed assignment to your


 u &