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Ê   
Ä Experimental recordings: Late ¶60s
Ä Jazz/classical: Early 70s
Ä First symphonic recording: 1976
Ä First major label recording: 1979
Ä Ry Cooder·s ˜   

Ä Compact Disc
Ä Jointly created by Sony/Phillips

Ä Introduced October 1, 1982


Ä Billy Joel·s [ 

Ä Biggest seller
Ä Beatles | — 0M+ copies)
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Ê   
      
Ä Sample rate
Ä Number of samples taken per second
Ä Also measured in Hertz

Ä Sample resolution
Ä Range of numbers used to describe
each sample
Ä Measured in binary bits

Ä 8 bits = 256 values —


— 127)
Ä 16 bits = 65,5 6 values —
— 2K)
Ä 24 bits = 16,777,216 values
r  

Ä Depends on desired frequency range
Ä Nyquist frequency = Sample rate
required to fully express a signal
Ä 2X maximum required frequency

Ä 2X 20 kHz = 40 kHz minimum sample


rate to represent full human range
r
 

Ä Depends on desired dynamic range
Ä Dynamic range = Difference
between softest and loudest sounds
Ä Measured in decibels —dB); 1 dB =
faintest perceptible sound
Ä Real
Real--world range: 10-
10-20 dB —anechoic
chamber) to 140 dB —beside jet engine)
Ä Each bit of sampling resolution
approximately doubles dynamic range
r
 

Ä Compact Disc
Ä Sample rate: 44.1 kHz
Ä Sample resolution: 16 bits

Ä Dynamic range: >90 dB

Ä Two channels for stereo

Ä ´CD qualityµ

Ä HD/BluRay DVD
Ä Up to 8 channels 96 kHz 24-
24-bit audio
Ä Dynamic range: >120 dB
Ê 
Ä 44,100 samples per second
Ä 16 bits —2 bytes) per sample
Ä 2 channels
Ä 44,100 x 2 x 2 = 176,400 bytes/sec
or 10.584 MB per minute
Ä Typical pop song 00--40 MB if
uncompressed

    
Ä Lossless compression
Ä Preserves data perfectly
Ä Compression ratio:
ratio: 2:1 typical
Ä Lossy compression
Ä Discards some data to increase
compression ratio
Ä The trick is: What to throw away?
p
  !!"
Ä Lossy compression algorithm based
on auditory masking
Ä Loud low-
low-frequency sounds can make
softer high-
high-frequency sounds inaudible
Ä Perceptual coding: Throw away high
frequencies that ´can·t be heard
anywayµ
Ä Compression ratio:
ratio: 10:1 or better
Ä Pop song becomes a MB file
p 
 
Ä First Web appearance: Late ¶94
Ä Winamp, mp .com —Summer ·97)
Ä First portable players —Spring ·98)
Ä 2 MB Eiger MPMan F10, Rio PMP 00
Ä Napster —June ¶99)
Ä Created by Shawn Fanning —19),
Northeastern University

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Ä Apple II and PC: Click the speaker
Ä Atari, C64, early consoles: FM synths
Ä Macintosh —January 1984)
Ä AdLib PC sound card —1976)
Ä Creative Labs Sound Blaster —1989)
Ä AdLib with digital audio + game port
Ä CD-ROM —1985)
CD-
Ä CD--R —1990)
CD
Ä MIDI/music synthesis

 p
Ä All game audio is digital
Ä Music, SFX, VO delivered pre-
pre-rendered
Ä Typical assets
Ä .wav —bigger, no decoding)
Ä .mp —small, decoded, may require
license because of patent)
Ä .ogg —small, decoded, no license)

Ä .flac —smaller, decoded)

Ä Real-time mixing, effects,


Real-
spatialization