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ƥIntroduction to ATR technology
ƥEvanescent Waves
ƥCrystal Composition
ƥData Collection
ƥAdvantages & Disadvantages
ƥSample Analysis
ƥFuture Applications
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ƥInternal reflection spectroscopy passes infrared radiation

through an infrared-transmitting crystal of high refractive
index, allowing the radiation to reflect in the crystal one
or more times
ƥAn attenuated total reflection accessory measures the
totally reflected infrared beam when the beam comes in
contact with a sample
ƥIn this way, an evanescent wave penetrates into the
sample in contact with the crystal, producing a spectrum
of the sample

ƥThe infrared radiation interacts with the sample

through a series of standing waves, called evanescent
ƥAn evanescent wave is a penetrating electromagnetic
field whose intensity quickly decays as it moves away
from its source

ƥWhen collecting ATR data, samples are run as %

Reflectance or log (1/R)
ƥ% Reflectance is equivalent to % Transmittance
ƥLog (1/R) is equivalent to Absorbance
ƥIn summary, % Reflectance is similar to Absorbance
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ƥThe ATR crystal absorbs energy at lower energy levels

ƥIf the sample does not have good contact with the
crystal, the data will not be accurate
ƥMost ATR crystals have pH limitations



ƥZinc Selenide (ZnSe)

ƥGermanium (Ge)
ƥZinc Sulfide (ZnS)
ƥSilicon (Si)
ƥAMTIR: Germanium, Arsenic, Selenium (GeAsSe)
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ƥWhen an ATR accessory is used, most samples can be

run Ơneatơ, which means Ơin their natural stateơ
ƥATR sampling is fast and easy because little or no
sample preparation is required
ƥOther techniques, such as infrared transmission, often
require the sample to be heated, pressed or ground in
order to collect the spectrum

ƥATR is an excellent technique for measuring the

composition of solids
ƥSome examples of solids are films, fabrics, paper,
hard polymer sheets, glass, rubber
ƥATR is an ideal technique for measuring dark colored
materials which often absorb too much energy to be
measured by IR transmission

ƥ ATR is an ideal technique for analyzing liquids

ƥ Sample preparation is minimal
ƥ Cleanup is easy and fast

ƥ ATR can be used to analyze non-aqueous solutions

such a lubricants, oils, paints, glues, solvents, inks and
ƥ Gels and pastes can also be analyzed

ƥPowders are easier to run by ATR than by IR

transmission, because little or no preparation is required
ƥThis category includes pure samples and mixtures that
are available in powdered from
ƥSome examples of pure samples and mixtures are
pharmaceuticals and pigments


ƥAlignment of the beamsplitter

ƥTechnique will change with sample type

ƥForensic Investigation
ƥBiomedical applications

ƥAttenuated Total Reflectance is an easy-to-use, fast,

and versatile technique for infrared sampling
ƥSolids, pastes, gels, liquids and powders can be
analyzed with little or no preparation

ƥ Thermo Electron Corporation