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# Chapter

Aggregate Planning
Aggregate Planning

##  Aggregate Planning Process

 Strategies for Managing Demand
 Quantitative Techniques for Aggregate
Production Planning
 Hierarchical Nature of Planning
 Aggregate Planning for Services

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Aggregate Planning

##  Determine the resource capacity needed to

meet demand over an intermediate time
horizon
 Aggregate refers to product lines or families
 Aggregate planning matches supply and demand
 Objectives
 Establish a company wide game plan for allocating
resources
 Develop an economic strategy for meeting
demand

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Aggregate Planning Process

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Meeting Demand Strategies
 Resources necessary to meet demand
are acquired and maintained over the
time horizon of the plan
 Minor variations in demand are handled
with overtime or under-time
 Managing demand
 Proactive demand management

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##  Level production  Overtime and under-time

 Producing at a constant rate  Increasing or decreasing
and using inventory to working hours
absorb fluctuations in  Subcontracting
demand
 Let outside companies
 Chase demand complete the work
 Hiring and firing workers to  Part-time workers
match demand
 Hiring part time workers to
 Peak demand complete the work
 Maintaining resources for  Backordering
high-demand levels  Providing the service or
product at a later time period

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Level Production

Demand

Production
Units

Time

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Chase Demand
Demand

Production
Units

Time

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Quantitative Techniques For APP

 Pure Strategies
 Mixed Strategies
 Linear Programming
 Transportation Method
 Other Quantitative
Techniques

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Pure Strategies
Example: QUARTER SALES FORECAST (Kg)
I 80,000
II 50,000
III 120,000
IV 150,000
Hiring cost = Rs.100 per worker
Firing cost = Rs.500 per worker
Regular production cost per Kg= Rs.2.00
Inventory carrying cost = Rs.0.50 Kg per quarter
Production per employee = 1,000 Kg per quarter
Beginning work force = 100 workers

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Level Production Strategy
Level production
(50,000 + 120,000 + 150,000 + 80,000)
= 100,000 pounds
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SALES PRODUCTION
QUARTER FORECAST PLAN INVENTORY
I 80,000 100,000 20,000
II 50,000 100,000 70,000
III 120,000 100,000 50,000
IV 150,000 100,000 0
400,000 140,000
Cost of Level Production Strategy
(400,000 X Rs.2.00) + (140,00 X Rs..50) = Rs.870,000

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Chase Demand Strategy
SALES PRODUCTION WORKERS WORKERS WORKERS
QUARTER FORECAST PLAN NEEDED HIRED FIRED
I 80,000 80,000 80 0 20
II 50,000 50,000 50 0 30
III 120,000 120,000 120 70 0
IV 150,000 150,000 150 30 0
100 50

## Cost of Chase Demand Strategy

(400,000 X Rs2.00) + (100 x Rs100) + (50 x Rs500) =Rs835,000

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Mixed Strategy

##  Combination of Level Production and

Chase Demand strategies
 Examples of management policies
 no more than x% of the workforce can be
laid off in one quarter
 inventory levels cannot exceed x Rs.
 Many industries may simply shut down
manufacturing during the low demand
season and schedule employee
vacations during that time

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Hierarchical Nature of Planning
Production Capacity Resource
Items Planning Planning Level

Aggregate Resource
Product lines
production requirements Plants
or families
plan plan

## Master Rough-cut Critical

Individual
production capacity work
products
schedule plan centers

## Material Capacity All

Components requirements requirements work
plan plan centers

Shop Input/
Manufacturing Individual
floor output
operations machines
schedule control

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Aggregate Planning for Services

## 1. Most services can’t be inventoried

2. Demand for services is difficult to predict
3. Capacity is also difficult to predict
4. Service capacity must be provided at the
appropriate place and time
5. Labor is usually the most constraining
resource for services

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