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West Visayas State University

Service, Harmony Excellence

Hum 107 Logic and Critical Thinking

Stephen Rey P. Ligasan, Ph. D.

I. INTRODUCTION
PHILOSOPHY Etymological Philein love Sophia wisdom Real Search for meaning of life its importance, significance, value, relevance

Elements of Philosophical search:


1. The object of the search is of real value to the subject. 2. It consumes the whole person attention, concentration, interest, effort. 3. It is continued without let-up until (a) the answer is found, or (b) the answer is not yet found.

The Nature of Philosophy


- Man wondered, questioned, and sought for answers, a total world picture Birth of Philosophy - Ionians and Early Greek Philosophers a. scientific b. ethical c. religious d. aesthetic

Branches of Philosophy
Theoretical knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself 1. Epistemology - knowledge 2. Metaphysics things beyond nature 3. Cosmology world or universe 4. Rational Psychology - soul 5. Theodicy - God

Branches of Philosophy
Practical Material or useful end 1. Logic reason, thought, discourse 2. Ethics - morality 3. Aesthetics art and beauty 4. Axiology - values 5. Semantics - language 6. Social Philosophy - society 7. Philosophy of Man mans existence

Short Historical Outline


A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Pre-Socratics Greeks The Romans The Middle Ages Early Modern Period The 19th Century Thinkers The Contemporary Period and Post Modern Period

Why Philosophy?
1. Philosophy shows no sign of coming to an end. 2. There is no such thing in Philosophy, once it has gotten off the ground, as a completely new idea. If we live as we ought, we shall know things as they are, and that if we see things as they are, our vision will help us live as we ought. -- Joad

Beginnings of Logic
Aristotle (384-322 BCE) Father of Logic, Formal study in schools of Ancient Greece as a system of analyzing and evaluating correctness of arguments through terms Chrysippus (279-206 B.C.) fundamental element of logic is truth and falsity of propositions Abelard (1079-1142) Theory of Universals as concepts of the mind

Beginnings of Logic
Leibnitz (1646-1716) Father of Symbolic Logic Mill (1806-1873) Inductive Logic Whitehead (1861-1947) and Russel (18721970) Reduction of the whole of mathematics to logic

Logic Defined
Zeno (336-264 B.C.) coined the word logic logike (systematized and intelligible) logos (thought, reason, discourse) Etymological Definition systematic study of matters pertaining to thought and discourse Real Definition science and art of correct thinking

Values of Studying Logic


1. Reason out clearly, spontaneously and correctly 2. Recognize good from bad reasoning 3. Use of supporting evidence or reason in arguments 4. Develop critical attitude towards assumptions and presuppositions 5. Grasp logical terminologies

Values of Studying Logic


6. Awareness of ambiguity of words and various functions of language 7. Motivation to value systematic and objective approach in analyzing issues and in doing things

Classification of Logic
1. Based on Validity of Reasoning Formal Logic conformity with structure of correct argument (Formal Validity All nurses are caring.) Material Logic based on truth content or meaning of statement involved in reasoning (Material Validity - Some nurses are caring.)

Exercise I
Identify whether the following sentences are formally valid and/or materially valid. 1. All Germans are good singers. 2. Some students are nosy. 3. All of you will pass Logic. 4. Every soldier is courageous. 5. Water is a liquid substance. 6. Roses are animals. 7. All cats are corporeal. 8. Ilonggos are sweet. 9. All lawyers are not liars. 10. Some mothers love their children.

Classification of Logic
2. Based on Approach in Arriving at Knowledge Deductive Logic Universal/General to specific Inductive Logic Specific to universal/general

Exercise II
Identify whether the following arguments are Deductive or Inductive Logic. Give 5 examples for each type of Logic and have them compared with your seatmate. 1. All men are bodily; But John is a man; Ergo, John is Bodily. 2. America is a capitalist; But Illinois is in America; Ergo, Illinois is a capitalist. 3. Socrates is a philosopher; But Socrates is a man; Ergo, Some men are Philosophers. 4. A pencil is material; But pencils are hard; Ergo, All hard objects are material. 5. Every dog is an animal; But Rudolph is a dog; Ergo, Rudolph is an animal.

Paradigm of Logic
TERMS

PROPOSITIONS

INFERENCE

Terms compose a proposition, while propositions form an inference.

Elements of Logic and Its Thinking Equivalent


1. TERMS 2. PROPOSITIONS 3. INFERENCE CONCEPTS JUDGEMENT REASONING

II. CONCEPTS AND TERMS


Terms
A. As a sign of a concept, oral terms are articulate sounds that serve as a conventional or arbitrary sign of a concept. B. From the point of view of the terms being the ultimate structural element to which a proposition or argumentation can be resolved, a term is a word or group of words that can serve as the subject or predicate of a proposition.

Comprehension, Extension and their Inverse Relationship


1. Comprehension of a term sum of understandable aspects or elements of the quiddity signified by the term. e.g. Man = rational, sentient, animate or living, corporeal substance 2. Extension of a term includes subjects signified by the term. e.g. Man = Filipinos, doctors, nurses, etc.

Exercise III
State if the following pairs of terms have greater or identical comprehension. 1. Triangle and figure 2. Triangle and plane figure bounded by three straight lines 3. Triangle and isosceles triangle 4. Dog and animal 5. Animals and substance, material, living and sentient 6. WVSU and College of Medicine 7. Zenith and peak 8. Man and doctor 9. Man and substance, material, living, sentient and rational 10. God and Supreme Being

Extension of Terms
2 Kinds of Extension of Terms 1. Absolute Extension of Terms includes everything that has the comprehension of the term e.g. man includes all races of men 2. Functional Extension of Terms includes subjects that it actually sets before the mind when it is used in discourse

Functional Extension
3 Kinds of Functional Extension of Terms 1. Singular one definitely designated individual or group e.g. this man, that boy, the prettiest girl 2. Particular indeterminately designated portion e.g. some boys, a few girls, most students 3. Universal sets before the mind each of the subjects whose nature it signifies e.g. Every nurse, everybody, each individual

Exercise IV
Identify whether the following underlined terms are singular, particular or universal functional extension. 1. Charisse is a good singer. 2. Several students are nosy. 3. Few of you will pass Logic. 4. Every soldier is courageous. 5. Pocahontas is a princess. 6. All dogs are animals. 7. These cats are corporeal. 8. Many Ilonggos are sweet. 9. All lawyers are not liars. 10. Some mothers love their children.

Inverse Relations of Comprehension and Extension


As the persons comprehension of the term (and concept) increases, its extension decreases, and vise versa.
ELEMENTS Man Animal COMPREHENSION Substance, material, living, sentient, rational Substance, material, living, sentient Substance, material, living Substance, material EXTENSION All actual or possible men All actual or possible men plus all actual and possible other animals
All actual or possible men plus all actual and possible other animals, plus all actual and possible plants All actual or possible men plus all actual and possible other animals, plus all actual and possible plants, plus all possible non-living bodies

Organism

Body

Exercise V
Arrange the terms from greater comprehension to lesser extension. 1. Table, plastic table, matter, solid object 2. Three-sided figure, figure, right triangle, triangle 3. Dog, organism, mammal, Labrador, animal 4. Water, body, substance, material, non-living body 5. Rational, man, rational animal, doctor, Ben 6. Animal, winged creature, raptors, bird, Philippine eagle 7. Red rose, plants, material, substance, rose, living 8. Institution, college, educational institution, student 9. Book, knowledge, fictitious books, If Tomorrow Comes 10. Angel, Being, Spiritual Being, Archangels, Michael

Distributive or Divisive, and Collective Terms


Distributive or Divisive Terms (and Concepts) signifies the essence or quiddity of individuals taken singly e.g. soldier, player, duck Collective Terms (and Concepts) signifies the essence or quiddity of a group of individuals but not of those individuals taken singly, as a unit. e.g. children, team, committee, jury, flock, herd N.B. Collective terms can be universal (All team), particular (Some team), and singular (This team)

Universal, Particular and Singular Terms


Singular stands for one individual or group and designates them definitely. Determinants - Proper names, superlatives, demonstrative pronouns, common nouns, collective nouns Particular stands for an indeterminately designated portion of its absolute extension. Determinants Some, three, several, a few, most Universal stands for each of the subjects to which it can be applied. Determinants Every, each, without exemption, whatever

Exercise VI
Indicate the quantity or extension of the terms as singular, particular or universal. 1. Captain John Smith (is a sailor). 2. A man (is running down the street). 3. Whoever is in this room (is welcome). 4. A few students (were absent from class). 5. All Filipinos (are human beings). 6. This dog (is a collie). 7. Every dog (is an animal). 8. A dog (is barking loudly). 9. Some cats (are sweet). 10. The lady (is walking).

SIMPLE APPREHENSION AND CONCEPTS


Simple Apprehension or concept act of the mind understanding the essence or general meaning of a thing without affirming or denying anything. e.g. Man, book, friend, or car Judgment affirmation or denial of what is apprehended e.g. Man is a corporeal being.

The Object of Simple Apprehension


Object a thing becoming known a. Material Object whole object in itself with all its attributes and relationships b. Formal Object what we know about the material object through cognition e.g. 1. An object at a great distance 2. As something 3. As an animal, as a man, 4. As John Smith

Concepts
Concepts mental expression of an essence or quiddity, a pure image or sign, giving knowledge of what it signifies. Kinds: A. First and Second Intention First Intention concept according to its own proper being. E.g. Man is mortal. Second intention concept that also averts to special mode of existence that the thing has as it exists in the mind. E.g. Man is a universal concept.

Exercise VII
Classify the subject term as a first intention or a second intention. Ask yourself, does the predicate belong to the subject as it exists or can exist in the real order or only as it exists in the mind? 1. Man is a rational animal. 2. Man is an bodily. 3. Man is the middle term of an argument. 4. Man is a social being. 5. Man has an eternal destiny. 6. Man is appetitive. 7. Man has a greater comprehension than animal. 8. Man is the subject of the last proposition. 9. Mans soul is just around. 10. Man is the king of all animals.

Kinds of Concepts
B. Concrete and Abstract Concepts Concrete concepts a form (perfection or attribute) as inherent in a subject e.g. man, bird, flower, house, pencil, book Abstract concepts a form (perfection or attribute) as separated from its subject e.g. animality, whiteness, chairness

Kinds of Concepts
C. Absolute and Connotative Concepts Absolute concepts presents its object to the mind as an independent reality, as a substance. It expresses subject (concrete) and form (abstract). e.g. man, animal, humanity, animality Connotative concepts presents its object to the mind as an accident, implying a substance. It merely connotes but does not express the subject in which the form inheres. e.g. long, acrobat, rider, weak, orator, teacher

Exercise VIII
First classify each of the following as concrete or abstract; then as absolute or connotative. 1. God 2. Size 3. Energy 4. Yellowish 5. Good 6. Goodness 7. Rational animal 8. Powerful 9. Orator 10. Student

Kinds of Concepts
D. Positive and Negative Concepts Positive concepts presents a thing in the mind according to what it is e.g. being, man, rational, living Negative concepts presents a thing in the mind according to what it is not e.g. non-being, non-man, irrational, dead N.B. No concept is entirely negative in all respects

Oral Terms
Oral Terms  An articulate sound  A sign  A conventional or arbitrary sign  Sign of a concept

Terms based on Certain Criterion


1. Components a. Simple terms made up of single word only representing an idea or thing e.g. table, chair, pencil, Ann b. Compound made up of arranged group of words which refers to one thing or kind of thing taken together as a unit e.g. The Beautiful lady with a pencil sitting on a chair and writing in the table is Ann.

Terms based on Certain Criterion


2. Significance and non-significance a. Significant terms if it signifies or describes a thought or an idea e.g. All men are corporeal. b. Non-significant terms without any meaning, it simply points out the thing. e.g. Mr. Brown, Mr. White, this book

Terms based on Certain Criterion


3. Meaning transmits a thought or idea, and sets a boundary to terms a. Univocal terms different in spelling and sound but have the same meaning e.g. beautiful and pretty, physician and medical doctor b. Equivocal terms the same spelling and sound but different in meanings in at least two occurrences e.g. bark, page, pen,

Terms based on Certain Criterion


3. Meaning transmits a thought or idea, and sets a boundary to terms c. Analogical terms partly the same and partly different meanings in at least two occurrences Intrinsic and Extrinsic Intrinsic Analogy realized in each of the analogues of the term. E.g. Being Extrinsic Analogy realized only in its primary analogues. E.g. Healthy predicated only in living organisms

Analogous Terms
Analogy of Proportionality and Attribution Analogy of Proportionality similarity of two relationships E.g. Foot of man and Foot of the mountain Analogy of Attribution relationship of a secondary analogue to a primary analogue E.g. Healthy complexion - health, House of Representatives house, Macbeth and Hamlet Shakespeare, Permanent departure - death

Exercise IX
Classify the italicized terms as (1) univocal, (2) equivocal (3) analogous by analogy of proportionality, or (4) analogous by analogy of attribution. If terms are analogous, state if the analogy is intrinsic or extrinsic. 1. Triangles are scalene, isosceles and equilateral. 2. His taste for books is better than his taste for burgers. 3. People do too much lying some in their beds and some in their conversation. 4. Cabbages and potatoes are vegetables. 5. A nurse must have patience with their patients. 6. Both God and creatures are beings. 7. My father fed my stomach while father fed my soul. 8. Her boyfriend passed away. 9. Reading Jason Bourne is just like reading Ludlum. 10. A pen is good in writing and an eraser is good in removing ink.

Supposition of Terms
Suppositio Terminorum is the property (that terms acquire from their use in a proposition) by which a term stands for a definite one of the various things that it can stand for.  function in discourse  nature of predicate attributed to the term E.g. 1. Man has three letters. 2. Man is mortal. 3. The man is happy.

Kinds of Supposition
1. Supposition of Subject Terms as subjects of propositions, they are either material and formal. a) Material supposition use of a term for the spoken or written sign itself, not what it signifies. E.g. Man is watching a movie. b) Formal supposition use of a term for what it signifies. E.g. Man is a rational animal. 1-Logical formal supposition use of a term for a second intention. E.g. Man is a species. 2-Real formal supposition use of a term for a first intention. E.g. Man is mortal.

Kinds of Real Formal Supposition


(1) Absolute supposition use of a term for an essence as such, separating from, but not excluding, actual existence in the real order. E.g. Man is mortal. (2) Personal supposition use of a term, not for an essence as such, but for the subject in which essence signified by a term is realized. E.g. The young man is more happy today.

Kinds of Real Formal Supposition


(1) Essential Supposition use of a term for a subject inasmuch as this subject is the subject of necessary attributes. E.g. Man is mortal and Every man is mortal. (2) Accidental Supposition use of a term for a subject in as much as this subject is the subject of unnecessary attributes. E.g. The man has a dirty face.

Exercise IX
What kind of supposition is treated in the following: Encircle your answer. 1. Man is a universal concept. (Logical, Real) 2. A man is walking in the mountain. (Material, Formal) 3. Man is corporeal. (Absolute, Personal) 4. The man has a funny face. (Essential, Accidental) 5. Man is a rational animal. (Logical, Real) 6. Man is a living-being. (Material, Formal) 7. The tall man is a good player. (Absolute, Personal) 8. Every man is bodily. (Essential, Accidental) 9. Man cooks food. (Material, Formal) 10. Man is the middle term in an inference. (Logical, Real)

Kinds of Supposition
2. Some other kinds of supposition a. Proper and Improper Supposition of dog is proper in A dog is an animal, improper in The dog ought to be locked in jail. b. Determinate and Indeterminate Supposition of a horse is determinate in Lost: a horse. Indeterminate in Wanted: a horse. c. Distributive or Divisive and Collective Supposition of five men is distributive or divisive in Five men are walking, collective in Five men make up a basketball team.

Exercise X
Classify and compare the supposition of the italicized terms in each pair of propositions. 1. The eleven boys are running. The eleven boys are nursing students. 2. For sale: a car. Wanted: a wife. 3. A whale is a mammal. Whales are swimming two mile away from the shore. 4. I am looking for a good wife to marry. Mel Rose is a good wife to marry. 5. He roars like a lion when angry. The lion is a brute.

Assignment
1. What are predicables? 2. Identify, define and give related examples of the 5 predicables. 3. Discuss the Aristotelian Categories or Predicables. a. The categories as Expressing Modes of Being (10) b. The Notion of a Logical Category 4. What are definitions? Identify and give brief descriptions of the different kinds of definitions. What are the rules governing definition? 5. Answer all remaining exercises in your booklets. 6. Submit answers for items 1 to 4 at stephenligasan@yahoo.com