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Submitted by SACHIN KULSHRESHTHA INT.B.

TECH(APE)+MBA(UAM) R-270307030 SEM-VIII

Long wellbore sections with Minimal Formation Pressures Medium - Hard Formations w/ Low ROP Deviation Problems due to High Formation Dip Angles Lost Circulation Problems Formations that have Minimum Water Influx

Water Sensitive Formations (Shales) are time sensitive to sloughing. Hydrocarbon zones are typically Gas bearing.

Faster R.O.P. (2-5 times faster than on Mud). Improved Deviation Control (light WOB). Minimal Formation Damage in Production section. Effective Pressure Control through Lost Circulation Zones. Detection of Low Pressure Zones.

Faster return of drilled cuttings (formation evaluation). Overall Lower Cost per Foot.

Hard Rock Drilling where ROP is less than 15 ft/hr using mud. Areas that have Deviation Problems with conventional BHAs and use light WOB. Lost Circulation Problems. Pay-Zones that are sensitive to Formation Damage w/mud.

Component Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon Dioxide

Molecular Mass (gm) 28.013 31.998 39.948 43.999 28.95 (avg)

Volume Percent 78.06 20.95 0.93 0.03 99.99%

Partial Pressure (mmHg) 593.4


159.2

7.1 0.2 759.9

Compound

Chemical Formula

AIT (oF)

Flash Point (oF)

Boiling Point (oF)

LEL (%) in Air 21% O2


5 3 2.1 1.8 1.5 1.1 1.1 1 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.6

UEL (%) in Air 21% O2


15 12.4 9.5 8.4 7.8 7.5 6.7 6.5 5.6 5.4 N/A 4.5

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Dodecane nTetradecane

CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C12H26 C14H30

999 959

-306.4 -211 -155.2 -101.2 -56.2 -9.4 26.6 57.2 87.8 114.8 165.2 210.2

-258.7 -127.8 43.8 31.1 97 155.7 209.1 257.0 303.4 345.4 421.2 485.7

Minimum Oxygen Concentrati on (%) 12


11 11.5 11.5 12 12 11.5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

871 761 496 433 433 428 403 406 399 235

Best Drilling Practices for Air Hammer Drilling Air Volumes VS Annular Velocity Minimum A.V. of 3000 feet/min. (Angels curves). Optimum A.V. of 5000+ feet/min. (Field experience). 30% additional air volume suggested for Misting and/or Directional applications. Hammer Configuration Choke size should be determined to operate 350psi differential across the hammer. Hammer with heavy piston has been found to be faster in misting and/or Hard-Rock applications. Hammer with lighter piston but higher frequency has been found to be faster in medium to soft rock while dusting.

CASE STUDY
Type of drilling techniq ues Drilled depth (m) Name of Company Rig name well employ ed Jabera#2 ONGC ONGC RIG Hole size Time taken (days) 143 Cost Employ ed 15 lacs/da y 3.4 crores

Convent 60 ional drilling Air 255 hammer drilling

26

Nohtha

ONGC

(on 24 contract to Shiv Ganga Drillers)

33

SHIV GANGA DRILLERS AT A GLANCE IN CONTEXT WITH MADHYA PRADESH DRILLING SHIV GANGA DRILLERS PVT LTD..

OWNER OPERATOR SITE OF WORK START DATE FINISH DATE DEPTH DRILLED PILOT HOLE DAYS FOR COMPLETE OPERATION COMPRESSORS RUNNING HOURS RIG RUNNING HOURS

: : : : : : : : : :

ONGC,FRONTIER BASIN SHIVGANGA DRILLER S PVT LTD NOTHA (JABALPUR) 30TH OCT.2010 (MOBILIZATION) 2ND DEC.2010 (DE-MOBILIZATION) 255 MTRS OF 24 250MTRS 32 DAYS 198 HRS 500 HRS

Air Hammer Drilling -- Arkoma Basin What has be done? 17 1/2 Intermediate (TVD 60 600): BP (Red Oak) -- Arkoma Basin Year 2001 using Rig Air (2400 SCFM) Average ROP = 30 - 40 ft/hr for hammer; 20 ft/hr on Mud with RC bits Year 2002 - 2004 using 3400 SCFM of Air Volume Air Hammer with Diamond Hammer Bit drills to Casing Point Average ROP = 75 ft/hr. World Record = 104 ft/hr by H & P # 189 (Top Drive) Cost Savings 3/4 days = $ 10k $ 15k

Air Hammer Drilling -- Barnett Shale What has been Done ? 8 3/4 Production Hole (Vertical Section) Objective: Drill Production Hole from 1500 to KOP @ 6500 2003 -- using Mud and Roller Cone Bits (some on motors) 3 - 4 trips for bits; ROP = 40 - 50 ft/hr average 6 - 8 days depending upon deviation problems 2004 -- using Air Hammer with 2400 - 3000 SCFM of Air 1 bit / 1 trip; 80% of jobs; 3 days; Avg. ROP = 85+ ft/hr 2 bit / 2 trip; 20% of jobs; 4 days; Avg. ROP = 100+ ft/hr Increased Air Volumes and Pressures increases ROP but Bit life has been lowered. Performance Drilling = Cost Per Foot (Guarantee) Cost Savings 2 - 4 days = $ 30k $60k Deviation issues are also being overcome

Conclusion
Drilling with air continues to be a very popular method of drilling. There are many advantages to drilling with air, especially in hard rock, non-hydrocarbon bearing and non-water producing lithology. The question for every prudent engineer, operator and contractor should be, Is it technically appropriate to continue to drill with air when hydrocarbons are suspected of being present in the open wellbore? . From 1994-2003, the upstream oil and gas sector has had the dubious distinction of having a fatality rate 8.5 times higher than the average for all industries within the United States. There were 8 very specific recommended strategies described in SPE 94416 to modify our existing safety track record

We recommend that air drilling be used for performance enhancement purposes in only non-hydrocarbon bearing lithology.Ideally, air drilling should cease just prior to exposing any hydrocarbon production zones. Once a hydrocarbon zone is penetrated or suspected of being penetrated, air drilling should cease and another drilling fluid should be used. In organizations that apply air drilling techniques, engineering and safety departments should make special efforts to frequently inform, educate and train personnel on safe air drilling operations and make that information available to them on a continuing basis.

Thankyou