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What is it all about ? By Tapan Kumar Kundu

You can change your GSM SIM card to get rid of your girlfriend. Shewag ki Maa ka phone CDMA pe aaya tha

Questions ???
How is one better than the other ??? Which one is cheaper ??? Which one is more reliable ??? What is the difference in technology .if any ???

More Questions.
Is there a single security code that will permit me to make changes to my phone ??? What role does bandwidth play ??? What provides protection from eavesdropper ??? How a mobile subscriber on one network access his home network ???

What is the underlying Difference ??

TDMA FDMA CDMA Laymans view
Are all different versions of digital technology

Time Division Multiple Access

Users separated in time Requires digital transmission Normally wider bandwidth compared to FDMA Used for GSM

Frequency Division Multiple Access(FDMA)

Users separated in frequency

Only possible in analog system

Code Division Multiple Access

Users separated by code Requires digital transmission Wider bandwidth compared to TDMA

Time for History.

GSM originated in Europe GSM earlier known as Group Special Mobile, a study group appointed to study and develop European public land mobile system One important criteria that the proposed system had to meet was ISDN compatibility..

And now CDMA

Introduced in 1980 IN North America. Purpose. What else but Military usage Used in Cellular Communication System , in the early 90s

Finally .What is CDMA? ..

A way to transmit bits of information through wideband, spread spectrum radio interface. IS-95 is the transmission protocol that employs CDMA. Evolution from IS-95A to IS-95B to CDMA2000 Better utilization of radio spectrum by allowing multiple users to access the same physical channel.

How CDMA Works?

Generating a CDMA signal 1.analog to digital conversion 2.vocoding 3.encoding and interleaving 4.channelizing the signals 5.conversion of the digital signal to a Radio Frequency (RF) signal

How does it works

Working of CDMA Channel Establishment

Clock Multiplier

Code Generator

Data Clock Modulator Data Filter

Transmit Signal


Voice Compression ..How is it accomplished??

CDMA uses a device called a vocoder to accomplish voice compression. The term "vocoder" is a contraction of the words "voice" and "code." Vocoders are located in the phone.

The encoded voice data is further encoded to separate it from other encoded voice data. The encoded symbols are then spread over the entire bandwidth of the CDMA channel. This process is called channelization. The receiver knows the code and uses it to recover the voice data.

CDMA uses two important types of codes to channelize users. Walsh codes channelize users on the forward link (BTS to mobile). Pseudorandom Noise (PN) codes channelize users on the reverse link (mobile to BTS).

CDMA Call Processing State

System Initialization State

System Idle State

System Access State

Traffic Channel State

Hand Off ???

Advantage of CDMA is the ability to communicate with more than one base station at one time during a call This functionality allows the CDMA network to perform soft handoff How does it all HAPPEN ?

Soft Handover


Primary BS A

Secondary BS B


Pilot Strength Measurement Handoff Request Frame Selector Join ACK ACK Handoff Direction ACK Handoff Information ACK Pilot Measurement Request Pilot Strength Measurement

Roaming in CDMA
Mobile Station Base Station Visited MSC VLR Home MSC HLR Originating Switch


User Dials Call

HLR Response SS7 IAM Normal Call Processing Continues

Why is roaming charged more ???

The Directory number of the MS is dialed Originating Switch sends an ss7 initial address message (IAM) to home MSC MSC queries the HLR for the location of the MS The HLR returns the locations of the visited System

Roaming Contd..
The MSC invokes call forwarding to the MSC in the visited system.. The forwarding MSC switch send an SS7 IAM to the visited MSC Call processing

Call Waiting.
Mobile Station Base Station MSC VLR Home MSC HLR Originating Switch

IAM VLR Query VLR Response Flash MSC Applies Call waiting ISDN Hold ISDN Hold Ack MSC puts Call1 on Hold connects call2

User Dials Call

GSM Subsystems
Operators OSS

NSS External Networks BSS MS Users

MS: Physical equipment used by the subscribers BSS: Physical equipment that provides radio coverage NSS: Switching functions of GSM Databases required for subscribers Done through MSC

When an MS is switched onWhat happens??

It first has to determine if it has access

to PLMN It does a location update for the same informing its PLMN about its location Location of an MS is stored in a central database


BSS Setup




GSM CALL FLOW Assignment Call Proceeding

Send info for outgoing signal Complete Call

Assignment Assignment Complete Assignment Complete IAM Alerting Connect Connect Acknowledge Answer Assignment Complete (ACM)

Privacy and Security in GSM

Each subscriber is identified using a cryptographic security mechanism Subscriber security information is stored in the SIM Card The algorithm are stored in the SIM card and in the authentication center.

Security Algorithms for GSM

1.Authentication Algorithm(A3) Used by handset to compute a signed response to a random number transmitted by BS 2.Private key generation(A8) Uses the same random number and K(i) to generate a private key(K)that is used for voice and data privacy A3 A8
RAND(from BS) K(I) on SIM Card


K privacy mask

Generation Next 3G
No boundary between telephony, information and entertainment services It will range from voice only to voice, data, and other multimedia application Wireless users will be able to make video conference calls and surf the internet simultaneously WHAT IS ALL THIS

How is it related to my topic.

People demand access for information and services wherever they are GSM should provide this connectivity. Internet access and a whole range of mobile multimedia capability. Thus GPRS in GSM

Pay for what you use

GPRS enhances GSM data services There is no end to end connection to be established, so setting up a GPRS call is almost instantaneous and users can be continuously online And users pay for the actual data transmitted, rather than for connection time

A GPRS architecture in GSM













Finally Everything Together