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Nanotechnology is the study, design, creation, synthesis, manipulation, and application of materials, devices, and systems at the nanometer scale. The term "nanotechnology" is now commonly used to refer to the creation of new objects with nanoscale dimensions between 1.0 and 100.0 nm
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` Nanospheres

and nanocapsules,that can be either amorphous or crystalline are the most widely used nanoparticles. They are specially designed to adsorb or encapsulate a drug, thereby protecting it against chemical and enzymatic degradation. ` The drug is confined in a cavity lined by a polymer membrane in nanocapsules while, there is a matrix system wherein the drug is physically and uniformly
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Swami Ramananda Tirtha Inst.of Pharm.Sci Visit www.bpharmstuf.com

Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability at specific places in the body and for prolonged period of time.The ability to alter the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drug in the body determines the strength of the drug. The advantage of nanoparticles over other conventional drug delivery systems lies in the size, when larger particles would have been cleared from the body; cells take up these nanoparticles because of their incredibly small size. For example, biodegradable nanoparticle drug delivery systems can be used for targeting drugs to the lungs, which has advantages such as avoidance of macrophage clearance and long resistance times.

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Nanoparticles are promising tools for the advancement of drug delivery, medical imaging, and as diagnostic sensors.research in excretory systems of mice, shows the ability of gold composites to selectively target certain organs based on their size and charge. These composites are encapsulated by a dendrimer and assigned a specific charge and size. Positively-charged gold nanoparticles were found to enter the kidneys while negatively-charged gold nanoparticles remained in the liver .

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More than 100 Nanopharmaceutical patents were granted by US patent office during 2001-05. United States Patent 6933331 entitled Nanotechnology for drug delivery, contrast agents and biomedical implants has been granted for nanoscale powders as composite and device components.

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NANOTECHNOLOGY BASED THERAPAEUTIC APPS

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DIABETES MELLITUS
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Polyethylcyanoacrylate nanospheres as biodegradable polymeric carriers have been found good for oral insulin delivery in streptozotocininduced. Smartell technology may help diabetics to maintain their glucose levels without needing blood sample glucose monitoring and injecting insulin. The rise in blood glucose will result in breakage of protein matrix of SmartCell and subsequent release of insulin proportionate to blood glucose.

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Ophthalmic Disorders Dendrimers have a potential for treatment of ocular disorders

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Ophthalmic Disorders Dendrimers have a potential for treatment of ocular disorders

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VIVA GEL IS AN ANTI HIV DRUG, WHICH IS ALSO BASED ON DENDRIMER TECHNOLOGY.

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The incredibly small size of nanoparticles are very useful in onchology. The small size of nanos enables them to accumulate at tumour sites,

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microscopic nano particles are attached to cancer cells and cooks' the tumors inside the body with the help of radio frequency waves that heats only the nanoparticle attached tumor cells, thereby causing no harm to the adjacent normal tissues. Sensor Test chips embedded with thousands of Nanowires, designed to detect proteins and other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells, could enable the detection and diagnosis of cancer in the initial stages from a few drops of a patient's blood

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NANOEMULSIONS made up of tiny soyabean oil droplets suspended in water &studded with bits of pathogenic organisms. New technology has the potential which change process of smallpox vaccination using a live virus.

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In the future nanorobots could programed to repair diseased cells,as antibodies in healing processes. 1)Elimination of bacterial infections. 2)Ability to perform surgery at cellular level. 3)Significant lengthening of human life span.
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Nanoparticles :the size of molecules that can deliver drugs directly to diseased cells in your body. When it's perfected, this method should greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patient's healthy cells.
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1. While most applications of nanotechnology in medicine are still under development nanocrystalline silver is already being used as a antimicrobial agent in the treatment of wounds. 2. Qdots that identify the location of cancer cells in the body. 3. Nanoparticles that deliver chemotherapy drugs directly to cancer cells to minimize damage to healthy cells.

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superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging ` nanopowders to increase bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs ` wound dressings and medical devices using antimicrobial nanosilver ` magnetic and optically active materials for cancer treatment ` nanohydroxyapatite for implant coatings and bone substitution
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1. Charman W.N., Chan H.-K., Finnin B.C. and Charman S.A., Drug Delivery: A Key Factor in Realising the Full Therapeutic Potential of Drugs, Drug Development Research, 46, 316-27, 1999. 2. Santini Jr, J.T., Richards A.C., Scheidt R., Cima M.J. and Langer R., Microchips as Controlled Drug-Delivery Devices, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 39, 2396-407, 2000. 3. Kopecek J., Smart and genetically engineered biomaterials and drug delivery systems, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 20, 1-16, 2003. 4. Torchilin V.P., Structure and design of polymeric surfactant-based drug delivery systems, Journal of Controlled Release, 73, 137-72, 2001. 5. Muller-Goymann C.C., Physicochemical characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems such as reverse micelles, vesicles, liquid crystals and nanoparticles for topical administration, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 58, 343-56, 2004. 6. Haag R., Supramolecular Drug-Delivery Systems based on Polymeric Core-Shell Architectures, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 43, 278-82, 2004. Visit www.bpharmstuf.com 24

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