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PIGMENT PRINTING PROCESS

In pigment printing, insoluble pigments, which have no affinity for the fibre, are fixed on to the textile with binding agents in the pattern required.

The economic importance of pigments in printing is substantial since around 1960 these have become the largest colorant group for textile prints. More than 50% of all textile prints are printed by this method, mainly because it is the cheapest and simplest printing method.

Electron

beam irradiation

method Conventional thermal printing method

Accelerated electrons delivered by electron beam accelerator were used to fix pigment colours, incorporated in curable formulation containing diluting monomer and an oligomer, to cotton and polyester fabrics. The fabrics were printed with these formulations and exposed to various doses of electron beam irradiation generated from the 1.5 MeV (25 kW) electron beam accelerator machine. The roughness and colour fastness to rubbing, washing, and perspiration of the printed fabrics by electron beam irradiation, were compared to the same fabrics printed by conventional pigment printing pastes.

Application of pigment emulsion was done at different specified conditions following a pad-dry-cure technique. For the above purpose, the cotton fabrics is treated with a solution containing pigment emulsion, binder, acetic acid and specified catalysts ,was performed separately in two bowl padding mangle The impregnated and padded fabrics were dried and finally cured at a temperature of 1400C for 5 minutes Soaping for fabric samples was performed employing 2 g/l non-ionic detergent at 600C for 10 minutes . Finally, the fabric samples were cold washed and dried.

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Depending on the nature of the fibre on which printing is done, suitable dyes or pigments are selected. Pigment color can be used for printing on all types of fibers. In case of dyes, reactive, vat & azoic colours are used for cotton, disperse dyes for polyester and acid / basic dyes for wool / silk fiber materials.

To make a viscous paste of dyes in water, a thickener is used. ` The choice of the thickener will depend upon the class of dye to be printed and style of printing Eg. ` Emulsion Thickener, Sodium alginate, Starch, CMC, etc.
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It helps in obtaining a smooth paste of the dyes without any lumps. ExampleTRO (Turkey Red Oil), Ethylene oxide condensates.

Formation of foam during print paste preparation and application is quite common, but should be avoided. ` Foam may produce speck dyeing. ` Antifoaming agents help in reducing foam generation Eg. Antifoam NS and Antifoam PJ (non-silicon type) Antifoam R100 and Antifoam R200 (silicon type)
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Depending upon the type of dyes used in printing, acid or alkali is used the paste. An acid liberating salt is commonly used. Example, Ammonium chloride, and Diammonium hydrogen phosphate are a few acid liberating salts used. For reactive printing on cotton, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate etc. are used.

Oxidizing agents are used in printing with solubilised vat colors and also in discharge and resist printing. Discharging agents such as Sodium sulphoxylate formaldehyde (Rongalite) are used in the discharge printing.

The function of hygroscopic agents is to take up sufficient amount of water (moisture) during steaming to give mobility to the dyes to move into the fibre. Eg. Urea and Glycerine.

Dispersing agents are necessary in the print paste to prevent aggregation of the dyestuff in the highly concentrated pastes.

Example Diethylene glycol

Preservatives are used to prevent the action of bacteria and fungus to make it dilute. Eg. Salicylic acid.

Binders are used in pigment printing as a thin film forming polymer. Eg. Melamine formaldehyde resin.

External cross linking agent like melamine formaldehyde resin may be added to the paste to improve wet fastness. Elasticity and improved adhesion of the film to the substrate is achieved by cross-linking. The cross linking reaction must produce covalent bonds which are insensitive to hydrolysing agents. The reaction should be activated only during fixation and not while the binder and the printing pastes are in storage.

Pigment Binder Fixer / Cross linking agent DAP / Catalyst LCP Urea
MTO emulsion paste -

X Parts 12 parts 1part 0.5 1Part 2-5 Parts


Remaining

_________ 100 Parts

The ratio of the amount of pigment paste to binder necessary to produce good fastness properties is influenced by the fact that even the smallest amount of pigment(perhaps 1 g pigment paste per kg paste) requires a layer of binding film at least 5 m thick. Additional pigment needs about 1.52 times its own mass of binding substance. For prints on hydrophobic materials (including polyester/cotton blends), another 0.51% of external cross linking agent is added to the paste, depending on the colour depth and the desired wash fastness.

Pigment paste (3040% pigment content) x g requires Binder (approx. 40% solid content) 80 g + 3x/2 g

Pigments are insoluble coloring matter than can be affixed on to the fiber with the help of some binders. Pigment printing is considered to be one of the simplest direct style printing, which can be applied on all class of fibers irrespective of their affinity factor.

Pigment printing is the most economical printing process and allows maximum output . Properly produced pigment prints, using selected products, have an unsurpassed fastness to light and good general fastness properties. Pigment printing can be applied to all substrates which are of interest to the printer including glass fibres, PVC and imitation leather. It is extremely well suited for colour resist effects, for example, under azoic and reactive dyes

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