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API 4F Edition Specification for Drilling and Well Servicing Structures

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API 4F

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Edition

Specification Scope
All new designs of steel structures for drilling and well servicing
Derricks Masts (Freestanding) Guyed Masts Crown Blocks

API 4F
PSL1

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Edition

Product Specification Levels


Minimum level within specification Reflective of typical current practices

PSL2
Includes all requirements of PSL1, plus additional requirements
Heat treatment operations Through-thickness NDE Weld acceptance criteria Traceability requirements Nameplate markings

API 4F

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Edition

Nameplate Markings
Requirements vary by type of structure Markings to be raised or stamped Nameplate to be securely fixed to structure in conspicuous place

API 4F

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Structural Safety Level (SSL)


Classification of the application of a drilling structure to reflect degree of consequence of failure in light of:
Life safety Pollution Economic loss Public concern

Expectation of environmental event

API 4F

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Edition

Structural Safety Level (SSL)


Specified by agreement of purchaser and manufacturer at time of order Two SSLs required
Expected event SSL (E1, E2 or E3) for events with adequate warning for preparations Unexpected event SSL (U1, U2 or U3) for events with insufficient warning for preparations E1, U1 represent high consequence levels E2, U2 represent medium consequence levels E3, U3 represent low consequence levels

API 4F

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Structural Safety Level (SSL)


Expected and unexpected SSLs can be different e.g. A manned platform classified as a U1 could be classified as an E2 or E3 if the platform is to be evacuated for the expected event SSLs currently used only for design for wind loading, but could be useful construct for seismic, transport or erection design in future

API 4F

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i n o din
Table 7.1
i n o din ondition O O Ex 3 3 4 5 n x n x Er r n r tin r tin t d t d t d tion ort tion d 6 o d (%) 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 oo 7 o d (%) 00 E E E A i A i A i ot ry o d (%) 0 00 00 00 A i 0 0 t o d (%) 00 00 0 00 A i 0 A i

Environ nt 00% O r Environ 00% O r Environ 00% Ex 00%

o d tin nt tin nt

t d tor n x tor t d

00% E rt 00% O r tin Environ nt 00% r n ort tion Environ nt

API 4F

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Design Specification Allowable Stresses


Based on AISC 33 -89 - Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, with modifications
Plastic design not allowed Fatigue design not required unless specified by purchaser at time of order Increases in allowable stresses for secondary stresses and for extreme level wind, dynamic and earthquake loads

API 4F

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Edition

Design Specification Secondary Stresses


Stresses resulting from elastic deformations and rigidity of joints Increase in allowables of 2 for all loadings except earthquake, as long as primary stresses do not exceed basic allowables Increase in allowables for secondary stresses is in addition to increases in allowables for extreme wind and dynamic loading

API 4F

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Design Specification Wind & Dynamic Stresses


No increases in allowable stresses for Operating and Erection load cases 1/3 increase in allowable stresses for low probability extreme events, provided that stresses for these loadings less wind and dynamic loads, meet basic allowable stresses of section 8.1.1 Increases for Transportation load cases to be specified with loadings by purchaser

API 4F

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Edition

Design Specification Wire Rope


Wire rope assemblies for erection and guy lines to have nominal strength 2. times maximum design load Nominal assembly strength to be derated for end connection efficiencies and for small sheave diameters (D/d<18) per API RP 9B

API 4F

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Edition

Design Specification Crown Shafting


Allowable stresses per AISC 33 -89 except that factor of safety for bending of shafts shall be a minimum of 1. to yield Wire rope sheaves and bearings are covered by ISO 13 3 or API spec 8

API 4F
Drilling Loads

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Design Specification Operating Loads


Hook load with fastline and deadline loads Rotary load Setback load

Dead loads Fluid loads Additional loads as agreed by purchaser and manufacturer Rig instructions to include list of all items with their total dry and wet weights as used in the design, as well as a sum of the weights and the first moment of these weights about the base of the drilling structure for both dry and wet conditions

API 4F 3rd Edition


Design Specification Wind Loads Overview
Wind environments to be considered
Operational wind Erection wind Transportation wind Unexpected storm wind (storm with insufficient warning to lay down full pipe setback) Expected storm wind (storm without full pipe setback)

Wind speeds specified by:


Purchaser for operating, erection and transportation environments Outside meteorological agency or specification for Expected and Unexpected environments

Rig configuration in each wind environment must be considered Design wind speeds subject to minimums (Table 8.3)

API 4F

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Design Specification Wind Loads Overview


Wind forces are calculated on member-by member basis with realistic shape factors All drilling structures to have identical design criteria for same storm environments Gust factor modifier Gf used to correct 3 second gust for spatial coherence effects i.e. larger structures are unlikely to have full gust on entire structure All equipment, windwalls and accessories must be included. Shielding is allowed Name plate and rig instruction changes required

API 4F

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Design Specification Wind Loads


Design Reference Wind Velocity Vref
Specified as 3 second gust at a 1 meter (33 feet) reference elevation above ground or mean water level Different values for each wind environment Expected Storm (no setback)
Offshore 1 year return period (RP) per ISO 199 1-1 and API-2INT-MET Onshore year RP per ASCE/SEI - or similar

Unexpected Storm (with setback) Same as Expected except:


of Vref for Expected case Onshore Offshore GOM 8 knots (1 year RP for sudden storm)

API 4F

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Design Specification Wind Loads


Maximum Design Rated Wind Speed Vdes
Nameplate wind speed May be different for Expected and Unexpected wind environments Taken as Vref x Eonshore (or Eoffshore as applicable)
Factor dependent on SSL and locale (offshore or onshore)

Wind direction to be from any azimuth

API 4F

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Design Specification Wind Methodology


Purchaser specifies SSLs and rig working locations Purchaser specifies Vref for operating, transportation and erection cases Designer determines Vref for Expected and Unexpected wind environments from outside meteorological sources Designer determines Vdes for each wind environment using SSL multipliers of Tables 8.1 and 8.2, but subject to minimum design speeds of Table 8.3

API 4F

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Design Specification Wind Methodology


For each wind environment and wind direction, designer calculates forces on members and appurtenances:
Determines local wind velocity at any elevation above ground or mean water level using elevation factors (8.3.1.3 and Table 8.4) Calculates wind forces on all members and appurtenances per section 8.3.3, using local wind velocity and:
Member inclination factor, Ki, to account for inclination of member to wind direction (8.3.3.2) Wind shape factors (8.3.3.4 and Table 8. ) Projected areas of members and appurtenances (8.3.3. and 8.3.3. ) Areas of members directly in front of or behind windwalls may be excluded

API 4F

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Edition

Design Specification Wind Methodology


Designer calculates global wind forces and combined loading stresses with member unity checks:
Scales vector sum of all member and appurtenance wind loads using:
Shielding factor Ksh per section 8.3.3.1 Gust factor Gf per section 8.3.3.3 and Table 8. Total scaled wind loads for all members and appurtenances should not be less than sum of unscaled loads on primary structure

Combines scaled wind loads with other loads for all load combinations Checks member unity checks under all load combinations with scaled global wind loads, but with full unscaled wind load on the particular member in question (as though that member is unshielded) as well as any appurtenances attached to that member

API 4F

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Edition

Design Specification Wind Loads


Nameplate and Rig Instruction Changes
Add structural base design elevation Include Vdes for expected and unexpected storm winds Nameplate graph of Hook load vs. wind velocity to have linear transition from 1. AMOD for Operating to 1.33 for Unexpected storm Rig Instructions to include detailed listing of wind areas for two orthogonal directions, with sum of areas and first moment of areas about base of structure

API 4F

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Design Specification Inertial Loads


Purchaser to provide motion data Minimum dynamic load combinations
Longitudinal forces of surge and sway, with heave Transverse forces of sway and roll, with heave Diagonal forces calculated as RMS of longitudinal and transverse forces, with heave, unless otherwise specified by purchaser

Design loadings per specification and as specified by purchaser

API 4F

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Design Specification Dynamic Amplification


Purchaser to supply motion information of supporting structure or vessel Analysis by rational methods appropriate to dynamic sensitivity of drilling structure to applied motions

API 4F

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Design Specification Earthquake Loads


Earthquake design criteria to be specified by user including loading, analysis method and allowable response Land-based units can be designed per local building codes using equivalent static design methods Offshore rig design per strength level analysis guidelines of API RP2A with 1/3 allowable stress increase considering both primary and secondary stresses (secondary stress increase not allowed)

API 4F

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Design Specification Erection Loads


Erection loads to be combined with dead loads and erection wind loads, with additional loads as specified by purchaser Fluid loads or added dead loads required for erection to be noted on nameplate and in rig operating instructions Crane erected structures to be designed per API RP2A, including dynamic factors

API 4F

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Design Specification Transportation Loads


Transportation loads to be combined with dead loads and wind and inertial loads, as specified by purchaser

API 4F

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Edition

Design Spec. Overturning and Sliding


Sliding coefficient of friction Qf
Soil, concrete, wood matting: Qf =.1 max. Steel on steel: Qf =.12 max. Alternate values allowed with testing and consistent rig operating procedures

Factor of safety to inadvertent sliding


Land-based structures: Offshore structures: 1.2 min. 1. min.

API 4F

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Design Spec. Overturning and Sliding


Resistance to sliding and overturning
Dead weights to limited to 9 of expected values Fluid loads and removable dead loads not allowed for consideration unless specified in rig operating instructions. Those required for erection stability shall also be specified on nameplate. Dead weights of offshore structures shall be further reduced by negative heave acceleration

API 4F
Freestanding structures

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Design Spec. Overturning Factor of Safety


Land-based structures: 1.2 min. Offshore structures: 1. min. Moments taken about common tipping line through centroid of nominal support reactions Nominal support reactions to be consistent with allowable ground bearing pressures or support structure allowable loads

API 4F
Clamped Structures

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Design Spec. Overturning and Sliding


Structures not meeting freestanding FS requirements for sliding and overturning must be clamped Clamps to resist overturning and sliding loads in all load of overturning or sliding combinations, calculated with 12 loads and minimum dead weights and restricted fluid loads and counterweights No increase in allowable stresses for wind or dynamic loadings for clamps Pretension of bolts intended for reuse limited to . Fu times nominal cross-section area

API 4F

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Design Spec. Overturning and Sliding


Dual Load Path Elements
Structural components, other than clamps, which have one load path for a given member load, and an alternate load path for a similar member load with the opposite sign Components to meet all design requirements Components also must meet design allowables for load case with overturning loads increased by factor of 1.2 ,
with 2/3 increase in allowable stresses for expected and unexpected wind, dynamic and earthquake loadings with 1/3 increase in allowable stresses for operating, erection and transportation loadings

API 4F

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Design Spec. Overturning and Sliding


Documentation
Clamp installation instructions to be included with rig instructions, with bolt pretension values and tolerances Owner/operator to develop procedures for storm preparation to include proper clamp installation per manufacturers recommendations

API 4F

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Materials
All materials to be suitable for application, but specification requirements cover critical components Materials must be produced to a written specification to include physical and chemical properties and material qualification Mechanical properties per ASTM A3 or equal on representative coupons from same heat with same working operations and heat treatment Wrought materials to be processed to produce wrought structure throughout component PSL 2 requires additional heat treatment QA/QC

API 4F

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Bolts
If conforming to recognized industry standard, they must be marked per that standard Other bolts must meet chemical, physical and mechanical property limits specified by bolt manufacturer

Wire Rope
Must conform to ISO 1 42 or API Spec 9A

API 4F

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Welding Requirements
Spec requirements apply to critical components Welding and welding QA/QC per AWS D1.1 AWS prequalified joints are acceptable All weld procedures must be written
Includes prequalified joints All essential variables must be covered per specification Procedure Qualification Records must record all essential variables

Consumables per AWS or manufacturers standards Consumables must be stored and controlled by written procedure per manufacturers recommendations

API 4F

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Welding Requirements
PQR weld properties shall meet the minimums required by design, with test weldments in the applicable postweld heat-treated condition
When impact testing is required for base material, it shall be a requirement for PQR
Tests shall be consistent with base metal requirements in weld and HAZ per Tables C-4.1 and C-4.2 of AWS D1.1:2 2 or ISO 199 2 Attachment welds only require HAZ impacts

Post-weld heat treatment shall be per weld procedure

API 4F

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Welding Requirements - Repairs


Repair welds shall be made per qualified written weld procedure, with adequate access for evaluation, repair and inspection Repair shall be made to ensure complete fusion with base metal WPS shall reflect actual repair sequence and heat treatment imparted to repair item

API 4F

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Quality Control System


Manufacturer must have written quality program to ensure that product quality is planned, implemented and maintained Issuance and revision of manual must be controlled

Measuring and Testing Equipment


QC equipment to be identified, controlled and calibrated at regular intervals per manufacturers written procedures to a recognized industry standard

API 4F

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Quality Control Personnel


NDE personnel must be qualified to ISO 9 12 Inspector performing welding visual inspection must be qualified to:
AWS certified welding inspector AWS certified associate welding inspector Manufacturers written qualifications

Other QA/QC personnel to be qualified per manufacturers written qualifications

API 4F

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Non-destructive Examination
NDE activities for critical components, as defined by engineering, must be documented and approved by a level 3 examiner qualified to ISO 9 12 NDE examinations shall be conducted after final heat treatment

API 4F
All critical welds require:

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Required NDE of Components


1 visual inspection 2 MP or LP inspection as designated by engineering UT or RT of all full or partial penetration welds loaded in 1 tension to or greater of allowable stresses All inspections per AWS D1.1 UT for laminations and internal discontinuities of 1 of connections with through-thickness stresses greater than allowables, when PSL 2 is specified

NDE acceptance per AWS D1.1 criteria for static structures for PSL 1 and per those for cyclically loaded structures for critical welds of masts and derricks when PSL 2 is specified

API 4F

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Workmanship and Finishing


Structures per fabrication requirements of AISC 33 -89 Castings cleaned and cored holes drifted Steel products to be protectively coated prior to shipment Socketing of wire ropes per API RP 9B and proof-tested

API 4F

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Purchasers Inspection and Rejection


Manufacturer to provide purchasers inspector reasonable notice for available inspection dates Purchasers inspector to be afforded free entry at all times at place of manufacture prior to shipment Unnecessary interference with operation of works grounds for refusal of inspection Purchaser may reject defective material after shipment or after being properly put into service with written notice Destructive testing required by purchaser paid for by purchaser unless materials fail to meet requirements Purchaser or user may review all design and fabrication documentation at manufacturers location for compliance with standard

API 4F

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Testing
Proof load testing not required except as agreed by manufacturer and purchaser per Supplementary Requirement SR2 Design Verification by proof testing or by computer analysis modeling to show under design loadings
Proof testing method and assumptions to be documented Computer modeling to be documented to show compliance with section 8 Verification by qualified person other than designer of test

of Wire rope end connections proof-tested to nominal wire rope assembly strength Cylinders and winches to be pressure tested to 1. times working pressure for minimum of 1 minutes

API 4F

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Traceability
MTRs required for steels with Fy greater than:
Structural shapes and plates Tubing Solid round bars 248 MPa (3 ksi) 31 MPa (4 ksi) 414 MPa ( ksi)

Material substitutions to be documented and traceable to specific unit, except for bolts made and marked per recognized standard PSL 2: Critical components to have full traceability PSL 2: Certified reports required for nonferrous materials and bearings

API 4F

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Documentation
Records required by standard to be kept safe and retrievable for five years Documentation must be clear, legible, reproducible All QC records to be signed and dated, but electronic files can be signed with originators personal code Purchaser has right to review records for compliance with specification

API 4F

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Documentation Records
Design records (section 8. ) Written specifications (sections 9, 1 , 11) Qualification records welding to include procedures, welders, NDE personnel, and calibration of measuring and testing equipment MTRs NDE records (section 1 ) Performance test records for proof load testing, hydrostatic testing and slingline socket testing Special Process records

API 4F

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Documentation for Purchaser


Operational features, block reeving diagram and lubrication points Instructions for raising and lowering of mast and/or substructure Facsimile of nameplate Tables summarizing wet and dry weights and first moments about structure base (section 8.2) Tables summarizing wind areas and first moment of areas about base of structure (section 8.3.2) Data Book per Annex A, SR3 if specified by purchaser

API 4F

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Supplementary Requirements
SR1 Low Temperature Testing
Minimum design temperature and impact-test requirements to be agreed upon by purchaser and manufacturer Critical components to be fabricated from materials meeting impact testing requirements Weld procedures for critical components to include impact testing consistent with requirements of base metals (section 1 . ) Nameplate to include minimum design temperature and SR1 Rig instructions to list required impact values for each base metal

API 4F
SR2 Proof Load Test

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Supplementary Requirements
Test load to be agreed upon by purchaser and manufacturer Structure to be visually examined after test per section 11.4.2 Nameplate to be marked with SR2 and ratio of test load to design load

SR3 Data Book


Requirement to be specified by purchaser Minimum requirements per Annex A, SR3