Anda di halaman 1dari 65

COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION
Organizational communication is a management function  Communication must be systematic  More than 80% of managers time will be spent in communication


in reading 9% in writing 30% in speaking 45% in listening.


16%

Communication


Process of passing an understanding from one person to another.  The word communication derived from Latin word communis means common.  If a person communicates he has established a common ground of understanding.  Communication is, to inform, to tell, to show or to spread the information.

Definition
Communication may be defined as interchange of thoughts or information to bring about mutual understanding and confidence or good mutual relation. - Basavanthappa B. T.  Communication is the art of being able to structure and transmit a message in a way that another can easily understand and accept. - Huber


DEFINITION:
 Communication

is the exchange of meanings between and among individuals through a shared system of symbols (verbal and non-verbal) that have the same meaning for both the sender and the receiver of the message - Vestal (1995)

 Communication

is the process of transmitting information from one person to another  Broadly it means, who says what to whom, through which channels and reacting others with ideas, facts, thoughts, feelings and values.

Objectives of Communication
To discourage the spread of misunderstanding, ambiguity and rumors which can cause conflict and tension  To faster any attitude which is necessary for motivation, co-operation and job satisfaction.  To develop information and understanding among all workers and this is necessary for group effort.  To prepare workers for a change in methods of environment by giving the necessary information in advance.


What are the most common ways we communicate?

To encourage subordinates to supply ideas and suggestions for improving upon the product or work environment and taking these suggestions seriously.  To improve labor- management relation  To encourage social relations among workers by encouraging inter communication.


Importance of Communication
 For

co-ordination  To share information  For direction  For decision making, implement the decision, and to evaluate results  To know customer preferences  To express emotions

Communication Process
 Source/sender: a fact, idea, opinion or information  Encoding: words, facial expressions, gestures, and physical actions and symbols like numbers, pictures, graphs etc..,  Transmission: through a channel or medium eg: face to face, letters, reports etc.,

Decoding
The receiver interprets the meaning of the message. Intended message and message and the received message differ a great deal resulting in communication gap and misunderstandings.

Receiver


Receiver can be individual, a group, or individual acting on behalf of a group. Sender has little control over how the receiver will deal with the message. The receiver may ignore it, decide not to try to decode, or understands and responds immediately Communication cycle continues if he get feedback

Noise
It refers to any type of disturbance that reduces the clearance of message. Eg; Coughing, others talking, disturbance in telephone line, or internal such as tiredness, hunger or minor ailment.

Downwards Communication : Highly Directive, from Senior to subordinates, to assign duties, give instructions, to inform to offer feed back, approval to highlight problems etc. Upwards Communications : It is non directive in nature from down below, to give feedback, to inform about progress/problems, seeking approvals. Lateral or Horizontal Communication : Among colleagues, peers at same level for information level for information sharing for coordination, to save time. In modern business environment communication extends beyond written or spoken words to listened word. Visual dimension added by T.V., computers has given to new meaning to communication. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Formal Network : Virtually vertical as per chain go command within the hierarchy. Informal Network : Free to move in any direction may skip formal chain of command. Likely to satisfy social and emotional needs and also can facilitate task accomplishment.

Types of Communication

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Verbal communication Non-verbal Communication

1. Verbal Communication
It involves spoken or written words  Words are tools to express ideas or feelings, arouse emotional responses, describe objects, observations, memories or interferences.


Effective verbal Communication techniques for nurses:


i. ii. iii.

iv. v. vi.

Clarity & Brevity: Vocabulary Denotative and connotative meaning. Pacing. Timing and relevance Humor

4 Cs for written communication: Clear Correct Complete & Concise

2. Non-verbal communication:
It is transmission of messages without use of words.  It compensate for the inadequacy of verbal message  people unconsciously use facial expression, gestures, touch and vocal tone  Powerful way to convey messages to others


Non verbal communication techniques:


 Metacommunication:

it conveys the senders attitudes, feelings and intentions towards listener.  Personal Appearance: It leads to impressions about personality and selfconcept.  Intonation: tone of the voice have a dramatic impact on a messages meaning.

Facial expression: Face and eyes send overt and subtle clues that assist in interpretation of messages  eg; surprise, fear, anger, disgust, happiness and sadness  Posture and gait  Gestures  Touch


FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMUNICATION


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Perceptions Values Emotions Sociocultural background Gender Knowledge Role and relationship Environment Space and territabilty

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES


Managers must understand the organizational structure. Both formal and informal networks need to be considered.  Communication is not a one-way channel  The communication must be clear, simple, and precise.  Managers should seek feedback regarding whether their communication was accurately received.


Cont
Multiple communication methods should be used.  Managers should not overwhelm subordinates with unnecessary information. Although information and communication are different, they are interdependent.


Swanburg (1990) defines, information as logic that has no meaning, it is formal, impersonal and unaffected by emotions, values, expectations and perceptions.  Communication, on the other hand, involves perceptions and feeling. It does not depend on information and may represent shared experiences.


INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR MANAGERS:


Non-verbal communication

Assertive communication

Listening skills.

Non-verbal Communication
   

Much of our communication occurs through nonverbal channels. If verbal and non-verbal messages are incongruent, the receiver will believe the non-verbal message. Non-verbal clues occur with or without verbal communication

Non-verbal clues
Space Environment Outward appearance Eye contact Body posture Gestures Facial expression Timing Vocal clues: Tone, volume, and inflection

distance
Distance is the means by which various cultures are use space to communicate. Hall (1966) identified 4 kinds of spatial interactions or distances, that people maintain during interaction. 1. Intimate distance: 0-18 inches 2. Personal distance: 18-40 inches 3. Social distance: 4-12 feet 4. Public distances: exceeds 12 feet

Assertive communication
Assertive behavior is a way of communicating that allows people to express themselves in direct, honest and appropriate ways that doesn't infringe on other person.s rights.  It always require that verbal and non-verbal message be congruent


CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
Upward communication Downward communication Horizontal communication In diagonal communication Grapevine communication

Grapevine communication
Its most informal communication network.  It flows haphazardly between all hierarchical level usually involves 3-4 people  It subject to error and distortions because of the speed at which it passes and sender has little accountability for the message


1.

2.

3.

Ribeiro & Blackley (1998) suggests, distortions occurs because transmitters using grapevine communication often do one of the following. Elaborate on the original story but convey its original intent Distort the message either deliberately or unintentionally, or Start a contradictory message because they disagree with the original message received.

BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION

Noise barrier

Interpersonal barrier

Barriers to communication
Noise Inappropriate medium Assumptions/Misconceptions Emotions Language differences Poor listening skills Distractions

The Communication Process


Medium

Barrier SENDER (encodes) RECEIVER (decodes)

Barrier

Feedback/Response

NOISE BARRIERS
CONTRIBUTING FACTORS 1.Poor Timing 2.Inappropriate channel 3.Improper or Inadequate information 4.Physical distractions 5.Organizational structure 6.Information overhead 7.Network breakdown

Interpersonal Barriers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Filtering Semantic barriers Perceptions Cultural barriers Sender credibility Emotions Multi-meaning works Feedback barriers

Overcoming communication barriers


 It

involves diagnosing and analyzing situations  Designing proper message  Selecting appropriate channels for communicating these messages  Assisting receivers of messages in correct decoding and interpretation and  Providing on efficient and effective feedback system.

Steps to overcome communication barriers


Feedback Improve listening skills Develop writing skills Avoid credibility gaps

Feedback
 It

helps to reduce misunderstandings  Time consuming  Two-way communication

Tips To Improve Listening Skills


Listening requires full attention to the speaker  The language used, tone of the voice and emotions should receive proper attention  Ask questions to clarify  Make sure that there is no outside interruptions  Do not prejudice  Dont jump to conclusions before message is over  Summarize and restate the message after it is over


Develop Writing Skills


Keep words simple

Do not be bogged down by rules of composition

Write concisely

Be specific

FACTORS IMPAIRS COMMUNICATION Homophyles Chain of command Frame of reference Self-preservation Crisis

Principles Of Communication
Principles to the managers to communicate with workers(nurses and other subordinates) 1. Workers tend to see and hear messages that are compatible with their expectations and predispositions 2. Workers who read about a topic are more inclined to listen to a message an the same topic 3. The effectiveness of different media varies with the workers educational level

4.The more trustworthy or prestigious the communicator, the less manipulative he is considered to be by receiver 5. Majority opinion is more effective in changing workers attitude than expert opinion. 6.Communication of fact is usually ineffective in changing opinions against a workers strong dispositions. 7.Workers with low self-esteem are more likely to be influenced by persuasive communication than those with high self-esteem

Principles to be followed by nurse leader


i.

ii.

iii.

Systematic analysis of the message, i.e., the idea, the thought to be communicated, so that one is clear about it. Selection and determination of appropriate language and medium of communication according to its purpose. Organizational climate, including appropriate timing and physical setting to convey the desired meaning of the communication

iv. Consultation with others for planning of communication v. The basic content and overtone of message as well as the receptiveness to the viewpoint of the receiver influence effectiveness of communication vi. The message should convey something of value to the receiver in the light of his needs and interests, wherever possible.

vii. Feedback from receivers, follow-up of communication through expression of the receiver, reactions and their performance review help in effective communication viii. The communication action following a communication is important in effective communication as this speaks more than his words ix. The sender has to understand the receivers attitude and reaction by careful, alert and proper listening to ensure that the desired meaning of the message has been comprehended by the receiver

Nursing Principles when interviewing with patients


Avoid being too formal or aloof. Avoid distractions Avoid yes and no response Do not monopolize conversations Avoid expressing your biases

ROLES &FUNCTIONS OF ADMINISTRATORS IN COMMUNICATION


ROLES:
 

 

Understands and appropriately uses the informal communication network Communicates clearly and precisely Be sensitive to the internal and external climate of the sender or receiver and uses that awareness in interpreting messages.

Appropriately observes and interprets the verbal and nonverbal communication of followers. Role models assertive communication and active listening. Demonstrates congruency in verbal and non-verbal communication. Recognizes status, powers and authority as barriers

Functions:


Understands & appropriately uses the formal communication network. Determines the appropriate communication mode or combination of modes Prepares written communication that are clear and uses languages that appropriate for the message and the receiver.

Consults with other departments or disciplines in coordinating overlapping roles and group efforts.  Differentiate between information & communication  Be proficient in telephone communication skills.


COMMUNICATION GAP
Communication gap arises when an employee does not know:  How important his work is  How far he is in queue  How well he is going  How much additional skill to acquire  What is expected of him

Measures to overcome communication gap


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

Encouraging feedback Combining rumors, guesses and misconceptions Encouraging suggestions Encouraging two-way communications Issue clear-cut instructions Encouraging personal communications and avoiding impersonal communication Organizing various functional areas to avoid compartmentation. Establish rules and regulations for smooth functioning of the organization.

PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION IN INDIA

Illiteracy

Because of illiteracy among workers trade unions play a very dominant role.

The political and personal ends of the leaders

Multiplicity of languages

Vastness of the country

CONFIDENTIALITY

PUBLIC RELATIONS
In 2001, ANA convened a committee of reporting 19 professional organizations to identify what nursing should look like and where it should be by 2010. public relation/ communication is one of the 10 key areas were identified.

Journal abstract-1
A study conducted by Pam Melloy et al, titled Beyond bad news: communication skills of nurses in palliative care summarized as, Communication is a cornerstone of basic nursing practice and a fundamental skill across all settings of care to identify the patient's goals of care. In the field of palliative care, recent literature has emphasized the role of medicine in "breaking bad news" with much less emphasis on the role of nursing in supporting patients and families after bad news has been received and throughout the course of illness and until the time of death.

Journal abstract-2
A article written by Ross Brinkert entitled A literature review of conflict communication causes, costs, benefits and interventions in nursing opines that Conclusions Conflict is a routine feature of nursing. Nonetheless, sources can be managed, costs decreased and benefits increased with indirect and direct interventions. Implications for nursing management: Nurse managers can support themselves and others in working through conflict by normalizing conflict, employing proven proactive and reactive interventions and by helping to build integrated conflict management and effective communication systems.