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Training & Management Development

What is Training? Training enhances the skills and capabilities of the individuals in an organization. A successful training program improves the performance of an employee which in turn enhances organizational performance. Training is an essential part of the orientation program for new recruits in an organization.

Training and Strategy


Training enhances individual and organizational performance Training facilitates employee retention and progression Training enables strategy implementation Training may be needed for new technologies
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The main objectives of training are: Improving employee Performance: when an employee is recruited by an organization, he might not have all the skills required to carry out his job. Training at this stage helps him learn his job faster and ensures better performance. Updating Employee skills: It is important for the management to continuously evaluate and adopt any technological advances that can help the organization function more effectively and efficiently.

Avoiding managerial Obsolescence: managerial obsolescence is the failure to adopt new methods and processes that can improve employee and organizational performance. Rapid changes in technical, legal and social environments have an impact on the way managers perform their jobs. Preparing for promotion and managerial succession: Training helps an employee acquire the skills required to assume greater responsibilities

Retaining and motivating Employees: One way to motivate and retain employees is through a systematic program of career planning and development. Employees feel cared. Creating an Efficient and Effective Organization: A manager who has well training and well equipped employees needs to spend less time supervising them.

The Instructional Systems Design Model

Methods of Needs Assessment


Gathering Data

Search of existing records Individual interviews Group interviews Questionnaires Performance tests Written tests Assessment centers Observation Collection of critical incidents Job analysis Task Analysis

Organizational Analysis Level of Needs Assessment


Is the training consistent with the organizations goals, strategy, and culture? Will employees be able to transfer trained skills to their jobs? How will training impact other units? Which training program has priority?

Job and Task Analysis Level of Needs Assessment


What tasks must be performed? What knowledge, skills, and abilities are required to do these tasks? Which tasks must be trained, when, and where?

Individual Analysis Level of Needs Assessment


Who needs to be trained? What do these people already know about job tasks? What is their level of basic skills? How varied are the trainees? How motivated are the trainees?

Specifying Behavioral Objectives


What will the trainee be able to do at the end of training? Under what conditions? How well?

Stages of Learning Consistent Tasks


Declarative Knowledge Learning What High demands on memory and attention Slow and error prone performance Knowledge Compilation Learning how to put it together Procedural Knowledge or Automaticity Attention to spare

Preconditions for Learning


Trainee Readiness
prerequisite experience or background required basic skills

Trainee Motivation
choice to attend training is relevant to career goals self-set goals for training performance enhanced self-efficacy expectations
persuasion, modelling, enactive mastery

Conditions of Practice
ACTIVE practice! Overlearning to enhance retention, transfer, and performance under stress Whole Learning for simple tasks or highly interdependent task sequences Part Learning for complex tasks with many steps Distributed practice often provides better retention and less fatigue than Massed practice

Overcoming Interference
Interference occurs when a familiar stimulus must call forth a different response. Example: learning to stop when you see a red traffic light. Provide lots of practice, explain why to stop is now correct and move is now incorrect

Transfer of Training to the Job


Maximize similarity of training and job settings Teach principles underlying the behavior Lots of practice in many scenarios Enhance end-of-training self-efficacy Action planning, relapse prevention Provide opportunities to perform trained behaviors on the job Job aids and reminders Supervisor support for training

Adult Learning Principles


Adults have relevant experience that must be drawn upon Adults may want to take responsibility for their learning Adults are problem centered rather than subject centered Therefore, training should be practical, active, interactive, and somewhat self-directed

Area of Training: Some major areas where employees are normally trained in an organization. Company policies and procedures :- Understanding company policies and procedures is important for any employee of the organization. An employee should acquaint himself with the organizations rules, Practices, processes and procedure. Skillbased training: employees should be provided training to match the skill requirements of the job they perform.

Human Relations Training: It is important for employees to know how to manage their professional relationships. Human resource training is essential to improve the employees skills in the area of self-learning, interpersonal skills, group dynamics, perception, leadership styles, motivation, disciplinary procedures, grievance redressal etc. Problem solving training: Training in problem-solving skills equips an employee to deal successfully with the problems he is facing. Management and supervisory training: This type of training is essential for the employee who perform managerial & supervisory functions as they move ahead in their career paths to assume positions of increasing responsibility.

Importance of learning: Process of developing new knowledge skills, attitudes and values through participation in formally organized learning situations and social interaction. Motivation: employee usually resist participating in training sessions as they either do not understand the benefits of training or are not convinced about its effectiveness. Organization should motivate people to understand what is the benefits of training. Why they need to improve their performance? Participation: Active participation of the employees in a training program ensures it success. Employee learn better through direct experience. Training methods like, on-the-job training is more effective then class room teaching.

Feedback: feedback on employee performance after the training also enable the employee to adopt and employ the newly acquired knowledge & skills. Repetition: Continuous practice during training and development helps in better learning. Application: Training loses its meaning if the learning is not applicable at work. Methods of Training On the job training: Its a real job environment where the trainee is exposed to an actual work situations.The major advantage of this method is that the trainee will get hands-on experience.

Job instruction training:- In this method trainee can discuss his problems in performing the job immediately with the trainer. Apprenticeship & coaching:. Individuals seeking to enter skilled trades, like those of carpenters, electricians etc,are required to go through formal apprenticeship under experienced employees, before they join their regular jobs. Job rotation: This is a training method where the trainee is placed on various jobs across different functions in the organization.the trainee gains crossfunctional knowledge and is equipped to take up different jobs.

Committee assignments: Under the committee assignment method, a group of employees are given an actual organizational problem and are asked to find solution. The trainees develop their teammanagement skills, interpersonal skills, communication skills, problem-solving skills and leadership skills while solving the problem as a group.

Off the job Training: Off-the job training refers to training imparted away from the employees immediate work area. When training is performed on the job, any mistake by the trainee might result in damage to the organization.

Classroom lectures: This approach is widely used for helping the employees. The trainer should actively involve the trainees and make the session more interactive. Simulation Exercises (artificial work) a) Case exercises b) Experiential Exercise c) Computer modeling d) Vestibule training e) Role playing

Concept of management Development Management Development related to the development and growth of the employees in an organization through a systematic process. This development is future-oriented and prepares managers for a career of valuable contribution to the organization. It is concerned with the learning and development of the employees. It helps in the development of the intellectual, managerial and people management skills of managers. It trains managers to understand and analyze different situations, and to arrive at implement the correct solutions.

Objectives of Management Development The main objectives of management development programs are : 1. Improving the performance of the managers 2. Enabling the senior managers to have an overall perspective about the organization and also equipping them with the necessary skills to handle with various situation.

Management Development: How Managers Learn

Management Development Systems


Should feature on the job challenges and mentoring as well as classroom programs Commonly include an Action Learning Project Should be closely tied to business needs Are often based on competency models

New Employee Orientation

Management Development Methods:On-the-job Development Methods Coaching: Coaching involves one manager playing an active role in guiding another manager. Coach /trainer teaches the trainee what to do, how to do it, and rectifies any mistakes committed by the trainee. Job rotation: Job rotation play an important role in developing the skill set of a manager.

Understudy Assignments: In this method of development, a senior manager selects and trains a trainee manager from among his/her subordinates, who at a future time will be capable of handling the senior managers responsibilities. Multiple Management: This technique enables junior managers to participate in board and committee meetings, which are normally attended only by senior and top level managers.

Off-the-job Development Methods Simulation exercises :-The popularly used simulation exercises are: a) Case Study b) Business Games c) Role Playing d) Incident Method e) In-basket Method Sensitivity training:- Sensitivity training or Laboratory training is a method which help to change the behavior through unstructured group interaction.

Transactional analysis:- This is a theory of personality and provided an approach for defining and analyzing the interaction between people. The basic theory behind transactional analysis is that an individuals personality comprises of three ego states, namely, the parent, the child and the adult ego states. The parent ego state is characterized by a feeling of superiority and authority. A person in the parent ego state is dominating and authority. The child ego state includes all those impulses that are common in an infant. A person in the child ego state is either obedient or manipulative, charming at one point of time and repulsive at another. The adult ego state is objective and rational. In the adult state, actions like processing of data, estimating of probabilities or alternatives and making decision are done systematically and logically.

Conferences: A meeting of people to discuss a topic of common interest is referred to as a conference. Lectures: A lecture is the simplest technique of presenting and explaining a series of facts, principles and concepts.

Destination between training and development

Training

Development

1. It describe the acquisition of1. Activities that designed to technical knowledge and skills. improve the skills of managers. 2. Training helps employee to2. Grooms them to handle future improve their performance. responsibilities. 3. Its generally concentrate on a3. Focus on a broad range of skills. limited no. of technical skills. 4. Mainly focus on managerial and4. Wide variety of interpersonal technical skills like: planning,skills. organizing, leading communicating motivating & decision making.

Four Levels of Training Evaluation

Utility of Training Programs


Assess total value of benefits from training: How much better are trained employees than they were before training? What is the value of this improvement per person, per year? What is the life of the trained skills? How many people were trained? Subtract costs of delivering training

Evaluation of the training programme

Setting Evaluation Criteria

Prior to training Assessing the knowledge

Trained or developed workers

Assessing After Training Transfer to the job

Follow-up studies