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Food sources

 Almost all foods are of plant or animal origin.  Cereal grain is a staple food that provides more food

energy worldwide than any other type of crop.


 Maize, wheat, and rice - in all of their varieties -

account for 87% of all grain production worldwide.  Other foods not from animal or plant sources include various edible fungi, especially mushrooms.

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Foods from plant sources y Many plants or plant parts are eaten as food. y There are around 2,000 plant species which are cultivated for food, and many have several distinct cultivars. y Seeds of plants are a good source of food for animals, including humans, because they contain the nutrients necessary for the plant's initial growth, including many healthy fats, such as Omega fats. y In fact, the majority of food consumed by human beings are seed-based foods. y Edible seeds include cereals (maize, wheat, rice, etc.,), legumes (beans, peas, lentils, et cetera) and nuts. Oilseeds are often pressed to produce rich oils - sunflower, flaxseed, rapeseed (including canola oil), sesame, etc.,
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 Seeds are typically high in unsaturated fats and, in

moderation, are considered a health food, although not all seeds are edible.  Large seeds, such as those from a lemon, pose a choking hazard, while seeds from apples and cherries contain a poison (cyanide).  Fruits are the ripened ovaries of plants, including the seeds within.  Some botanical fruits, such as tomatoes, pumpkins, and eggplants, are eaten as vegetables.

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Vegetables are a second type of plant matter that is commonly eaten as food. These include root vegetables (potatoes and carrots), leaf vegetables (spinach and lettuce), stem vegetables (bamboo shoots and asparagus), and inflorescence vegetables (globe artichokes and broccoli).

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Animal source foods


 Animals are used as food either directly or indirectly

by the products they produce.  Meat is an example of a direct product taken from an animal, which comes from muscle systems or from organs.  Food products produced by animals include milk produced by mammary glands, which in many cultures is drunk or processed into dairy products (cheese, butter, et cetera).  In addition, birds and other animals lay eggs, which are often eaten, and bees produce honey, a reduced nectar from flowers, which is a popular sweetener in many cultures.
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Malnutrition
Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions. The World Health Organization cites malnutrition as the greatest single threat to the world's public health.[3] Improving nutrition is widely regarded as the most effective form of aid. Long term measures include investing in modern agriculture in places that lack them, such as fertilizers and irrigation, which largely eradicated hunger in the developed world.
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Causes
Major causes of malnutrition include  poverty and food prices,  dietary practices  agricultural productivity 1. Poverty and food prices  As much as food shortages may be a contributing factor to malnutrition in countries with lack of technology,  The FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) has estimated that eighty percent of malnourished children living in the developing world live in countries that produce food surpluses.  The economist Amartya Sen observed that, in recent decades, famine has always a problem of food distribution and/or poverty, as there has been sufficient food to feed the whole population of the world.
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Dietary practices
y A lack of breastfeeding can lead to malnutrition in infants and

children. Possible reasons for the lack in the developing world may be that the average family thinks bottle feeding is better. The WHO says mothers abandon it because they do not know how to get their baby to latch on properly or suffer pain and discomfort. y Deriving too much of one's diet from a single source, such as eating almost exclusively corn or rice, can cause malnutrition. This may either be from a lack of education about proper nutrition, or from only having access to a single food source. y Many tend to think malnutrition only in terms of hunger, however, overeating is also a contributing factor as well. Many parts of the world have access to a surplus of non-nutritious food, in addition to increased sedentary lifestyles. In turn, this has created a universal epidemic of obesity.
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3. Agricultural productivity
 Food shortages can be caused by a lack of farming skills such as crop rotation, or by a lack of technology or resources needed for the higher yields found in modern agriculture, such as nitrogen fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation.  As a result of widespread poverty, farmers cannot afford or governments cannot provide the technology.  The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also press nations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers.  Many, if not most, farmers cannot afford fertilizer at market prices, leading to low agricultural production and wages and high, unaffordable food prices.
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Future threats
 There are a number of potential disruptions to global food supply that     

could cause widespread malnutrition. Climate change is of great importance to food security. With 95% of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of the sub-tropics and tropics. According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are "very likely." Even small changes in temperatures can lead to increased frequency of extreme weather conditions. Many of these have great impact on agricultural production and hence nutrition. For example, the 1998-2001 central Asian drought brought about an 80% livestock loss and 50% reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran. Similar figures were present in other nations. Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase in temperature reduces the productiveness of many crop species, also decreasing food security in these regions.

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Effects of Malnutrition
 Malnutrition is a lack of or excess of energy and nutrients, essential vitamins and

minerals in one's diet and it does not always mean starvation. Starvation is simply a lack of food. Organization (WHO). Although malnutrition means both undernutrition and overnutrition, undernutrition affects approximately thirty percent of people from different age groups in the developing world.

 It is seen as the most important risk factor for diseases by The World Health

 Children are possibly the worst affected by undernutrition. More than fifty percent of

all child deaths in the third world countries are because of malnutrition. These children end up with lifetime problems, if they survive the first few years of their lives at all. healthy baby if (s)he is being fed chocolate bars, sweets and fatty foods. They are being made prone to obesity and many other health problems linked to obesity. affects not only your physical body but your mind badly as well. Your ability to think, remember, analyze and create will be diminished and even destroyed.

 As for overnutrition of babies, an overweight baby should not be assumed to be a

 Mental growth: Malnutrition during childhood can have fatal consequences and it

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 Malnutrition during pregnancy may cause the baby to weigh

less at birth and have a lower chance of survival.

 Zinc deficiency means impaired neurological function, not

being able to resist infectious diseases and heal the wounds and it is the most common nutritional deficiency reported in the western world.  A diet poor in dietary fiber will simply lead to constipation and weight gain, followed by potential diseases- hearth complications and even certain types of cancer.
 Little or no carbohydrate intake will mean fatigue, lack of

energy and unhealthy weight loss.

 B vitamins are needed to be able to develop healthy nervous

system that is extremely important for mental and emotional health and stability. B vitamin deficiency may mean anxiety, nervousness, mental problems and more.
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 Calcium and estrogen deficiencies with a corticol excess can lead to osteoporosis- significant loss of bone mineral density and potential bone fractures.  Vitamin A deficiency makes kids vulnerable to diarrhea and diseases like measles as well as causing preventable blindness in the developing countries.  Iodine deficiency can cause dry skin, fatigue, hair loss, mental retardation, delayed development and goitreenlarged thyroid gland.  Iron deficiency can make kids less active and less able to concentrate. Teens who are malnourished often have trouble keeping up in school.
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