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Weaving is a textile craft in which two distinct sets of yarns are interlaced to form a fabric or cloth.

construction is a process that consists of the building or assembling of infrastructure.

weaving, the art of forming a fabric by interlacing at right angles two or more sets of yarn or other material.


There are three basic types of weaves from which all other weaves are produced. 1- plain weave. 2- twill weave. 3-satin weave.


It is the simplest and most commonly used weave representing 70-80% of all woven fabrics. It consits of alternate interlacing of warp and weft yarns, one up and one down, the entire width of the fabric. No face or back. Colour paterning of the warp and weft results in colour and weave effects. One characteristic of plain weave is the 2*2 or 2 ends 2 picks repeat. A repeat in the fabric design means the number of warp ends and weft picks required to make one pattern.the rest of the fabric will be as the repeat. Most durable fabrics are manufactured by plain weave technology.

Characteristics of Plain Weave

It is snag resistant. It wrinkles. It has lower tear strength

Basket variations of plane weave:

Basket weave is the amplification in the height and width of the plain weave. Has lower strength. Two or more yarns have to be ligted or lowered or under two or more picks for each each plain weave point. when the groups of yarn are equal,basket weave is termed regular otherwise it is termed irregular.

Basket weave

Basket weave
Basket weave is a variation of the plain weave. In this, two or more than two warps yarns cross alternately side-by-side with two or more than two filling yarns. This type of weave resembles a plaited basket. In basket weave the fabrics have a loose construction and a flat appearance. The weave is more pliable and stronger than a plain weave but it is not as stable. It is less smooth but have a pleasant texture surface. Uses of Basket Weave Basket weave is typically used in composites industry. It is also used as outerwear, monk's cloth and drapery fabrics.

Regular basket weave :

This is commonly used for edges in drapery, or as a bottom in very small weave repeats, because the texture is too loose fitting for big weave repeats. Yarns of different groups can slip, group and overlap , spoiling the appearance. That is why only basket weaves 2-2,33,4-4 exists.

Irregular basket weave fabric:

This is the generally the combination of the warp and the weft ribs.

Irregular basket weave fabric:

Basket weave fabrics: 1. oxford cloth. 2. hopsacking. 3. flat duck.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. muslin 6. bukram 11. Cambric gingham 7. grpsgrain 12. Voile chiffon 8. percale 13. madras wool tweeds 9. batiste 14. lawn. canvas 10. poplin 15. chambray

Muslin is a soft and fine cotton fabric with a plain weave. It has low count, less than 160 threads per square inch. Unfinished muslin is used in fashion design for making trial garments. Characteristics of Muslin Fabric It is smooth and delicate. It is cool and comfortable. It wears well. It is medium to lightweight. It wrinkles. Uses of Muslin Fabric The upholsterers put muslin as the primary fabric of chair and sofa. The fabric is lightweight, so it is used as slipcovers, bedspread, bed, skirt, throw pillow, table skirt, etc. Muslin curtains and window shade suits a country house. Muslin is also used as eveningwear, bridal wear, trimmings, backing for millinery and neckwear.

Chambray is a closely woven plain weave fabric mostly made from cotton. The fabric is made of dyed warp (down) and white or unbleached filling (across). Both carded or combed yarns are used. It has a white selvedge to prevent raveling and has a very soft coloring (often light blue), which creates a faded look. Some are also made in stripes, checks or embroidered. Characteristics of Chambray Fabric It is soft and lightweight. It is smooth. It is slightly lustrous. It is strong and durable. It wears well. It is easy to sew. It launders well. Uses of Chambray Fabric Children's wear Dresses Shirts Blouses Aprons All kinds of sportswear

Characteristics of Voile Fabric It is sheer. It is very lightweight. It has hard finish. It drapes and gathers very well. It is crisp and sometimes wiry hand. Uses of Voile Fabric Curtain Dresses Blouses

Poplin is a tightly woven plain weave fabric made of cotton, silk, wool or synthetic blends. Characteristics of Poplin Fabric It is smooth and lustrous. It is soft. It is heavyweight fabric. It is durable. It has flat finish. It drapes well. It wrinkles less. Uses of Poplin Fabric Poplin's flat finish has made it perfect for making banners or table drape displays in stores or tradeshows. It is also widely used as all kinds of sportswear, shirts, boy's suits, uniforms, blouses and dresses.

Characteristics of Flannel Fabric Flannel is soft and fuzzy Flannel is elastic Flannel is thick and warm Flannel is very durable Flannel drapes well Flannel is dull-surfaced Flannel is slightly fuzzy Flannel is scratchy Flannel absorbs and releases perspiration quickly. Uses of Flannel Fabric Flannel is used as blazers, jackets, trousers, women's suits, men's suits, shirts, flannel pajamas, flannel pants, sleeping garments, work gloves, linings, coverings, and sheets flannel.

Organdy Fabric
Characteristics of Organdy Fabric It is stiff. It is lightweight. It is transparent. It is fine and sheer. Uses of Organdy Fabric The most common uses of organdy fabric is garment overlays in blouses, dresses, collars, puffed sleeves, full gathered skirts, petticoats and pinafores. Curtains are also made of organdy fabric.

Gauze Fabric
Characteristics of Gauze Fabric It is thin and lightweight. It is transparent. It is fine and airy. It is soft and comfortable. It is open-textured. Uses of Gauze Fabric Lightweight property of the gauze has made it perfect for warm summer days. It is widely used as apparel, blouses, surgical dressings, and curtains. The heavyweight gauze fabric is used as diapers, which are exceptionally durable and comfortable. Gauze is a transparent fabric, which filters light, hence it is very much used as casual window dressings like panels and scarves

Lawn Fabric
Characteristics of Lawn Fabric It is lightweight. It is soft. It is crisp. It is crease resistant. 100% cotton lawn gives a silky feel. Uses of Lawn Fabric Christening gowns Slips Day gowns Dresses

Percale Fabric
Percale is also a popular weave used for bed linens. Percale fabric can include other fibers such as cotton. Fabric Characteristics: Most plain weaves are easy to sew Many shrink and wrinkle badly Plain weaves can be difficult to ease Plain weaves have poor elasticity and tear easily . Uses: A closely woven cotton fabric used for sheets and clothing.

Satin Weave:
the third basic weave is satin weave. satin fabrics are characterized by long floats on the face of the fabric which produce a high luster on one side of the fabric. warp yarns of low twist float or pass over four or more filling yarns. low twist and floating of warp yarns,together with fiber content,give a high degree of light reflection. satin weave fabric are made by allowing yarn to float over a number of yarns from the opposite direction. interlacing are made at intervals such as over four,under one (using five harneses) over seven, under one (using eight harnesses) or over eleven under one (using 12 harnesses) float in satin fabrics may across from 4 to 12 yarns before interlacing with another yarn. thanks to the distribution of interlacing points,all emphasized diagonal effects are avoided. as with twill,there is only one interlacing point on each thread and pick of the weave repeat.satins differ from twills by having a step number different from 1.

satin is designated by its weave repeat,the effect produced on its front face and its step number. - the satin step number value of the weave repeat R can be a prime number (not having a common multiplier) except 1 and R -1. - the value of the principal step number and interior to half the weave repeat. - for warp effect,the number is in the warp direction. - for weft effects,the step number is in the weft direction.


this is a satin in which the interweaving point is doubled in the effect direction. - the goal is to consolidate the cloth while preserving the ordinary satin appearance. - the direction of the step number is in accordance with the chosen effect-weather the basic satin is regular or irregular.

satiny has an interweaving point like satin, with weft or warp effect, and a motif built on this interweaving point.

the motif is placed and one shoots it following the basic satin. then,the evolution of the first thread is placed and the step number of the satin must be followed.

Twill weave
The second weave is the twill weave Twill produce a fabric with a diagonal rib ridge or wale In regular twill the diagonal line is repeated regularly, usually running upward from left to right at a 45 angle A twill weave requires that each warp and must float over the minimum of to weft picks and under one weft pick , otherwise it will still be a plain weave Twill weaves may vary in angle from a lows lope to a very steep slope Twill weave are most closely woven , heavier and strongerthanweaves of comparable fiber and yarn size . they can be produced infancy designs .

The smallest twill is the most popular weaves in mens wear

Let R be the weave repeate Twill weave means a step number of 1 Warp effect means (R-1) left for the evolution of the first warp thread Weft effect means 1 taken and (R-1) left for the evolution of the first warp thread Cord to right mean a positive step number (upwards) Cord to left mean a negative step number (downwards)

Cross twill
A twill derived from fundamental twill weave , like composed twill and fancy-figured twill

Regular cross twill

The denomination of cross twill comes from the magnitude of front and reverse floated warps For the cross twill 2-2 , the weave repeat is 4 yarns 4and 4 picks with 2 front floated warp yarns followed by 2 reverse with floated warp yarns

Irregular cross twill

This can be constructed on even and odd modules It is distinguished from the regular cross twill by the inequality between warp and effect

Composed twill
In cross twill with short floats ,the crossing is fine but appears very little It will be ,ore accentuated if the floated length is increased ,but this more marked diagonal will be at the expence of solidity ; as the yarn are less linked , the cloth will be softner and they offer less resistance, the yarn will have a tendency to slip. One way of remedying this disadvantage is to insert between each floated yarn: An interweaving of several plain weave points . Other warp and weft effects , with different values or differently placed. The choice of the value and the disposition of effect depend on the sort of article for the weave is destined.

Fancy figured twill

Fancy figured twill weave are characterized by a particular effect .

No fix rule for the construction can be given but it is preferable to respect a ratio of divisibility between the weave repeate and the choosen motif to be sure of the connection . A plain twill and a warp and weft multiple of the twill (the former are frequently equal) are choosen for the weave repeate of the fancy figured twill Then the weave repeate of the fancy figured twill is shared in enough equal parts that there are warp and weft yarn in the basic weave.

Weave repeate of the fancy figured twill

5 warp and 10 weft yarns (height of the motif multipled by the weave repeate Repetition of the motif 5 times

Weave repeate of the fancy figured twill

7warp 14 weft yarns (height of the motif multiplied by the weave repeat). Repetition of the motif 7 times:

Fabrics made from twill weave:

Calvary twill drill Dungaree jean Whipcord melton Serge elastique Flannel tartan Mackinac glen check covert cloth gabardine herringbone surah chino chevron

Performance and characteristics of twill weave: Compared to twill weave:

More yarns per inch More raveling More pliable,drape and hand More wrinkle ressitance More resistance to showing soil and staining More durability and heavier Tendency to have defined as left or right hand or variation Angle of twill can vary from 15-75 deg 45 deg typical use.