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Diunggah oleh Sreedhara Sv

- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good Life
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Library Book
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of Nike
- Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On It
- Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- Yes Please
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- Steve Jobs
- How To Win Friends and Influence People

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Accuracy is defined as closeness of agreement between observed values and known reference standard. Accuracy can be measured by measuring central tendency of the process.

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Accuracy

There are three popular measures of accuracy: Mean Mode Median The most commonly used measure of accuracy is mean ( simple arithmetic mean). Hence for the purpose of Six Sigma we confine our study on Mean only.

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Measurement of accuracy

Mean - it is the arithmetic average of the measurements. To find the mean, all the measurements X1, X2, X3, , Xn are added and their sum is divided by the number of measurements, n. Mathematically it is represented as:( X1 + X2 + X3 ++ Xn) n

Mean X =

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Precision is the measure of dispersion between several individual observations of relevant quality characteristics. Precision describes consistency of the process. Precision can be measured through :1. Range: Range is the difference between the largest and smallest measurement in a given set of observations. 2. Standard Deviation: Standard deviation in general terms is a measure of mean variation of values from the central tendency. Standard deviation is more reliable method of measuring precision, hence for the purpose of Six Sigma, we will confine our study on Standard deviation.

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Measurement of precision

Mean Deviation of values from central tendency can also be used to measure dispersion. However, there is one difficulty in the use of this measure, that the algebraic sum of all deviations is zero. Standard deviation is calculated as root mean square of the deviations of observations from the mean which henceforth will be represented by abbreviation SD.

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Standard deviation can be calculated by the following formula :If X1, X2 ,X3Xn are individual observations And X is the arithmetic mean (X12 + X22 +.+Xn2) - n ( X ) 2 Variance, V = (n - 1) Standard Deviation, SD = V

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Sl. 1 2 3 4 5 otal X 10 11 12 13 14 60 X (Square) 100 121 144 169 196 730

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X= 60 5 (X12 + X22 +.+Xn2) - n ( X )2 Variance, V = (n - 1) = = 2.5 SD = 2.5 =1.5811 730 - 5 x (12) 2 (5 - 1) = 12

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Accuracy & precision of a process can be best explained by using the analogy of a rifle firing at a target.

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With the center of the target taken to be the true value of the characteristic being measured and by the rifle shots representing the measured values, there are four combinations of accuracy and precision as depicted in the following slides.

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As observed from the Picturization in the preceding slides, the objective of moving towards world class quality is to continuously achieve greater consistency of the processes by aiming for consistently higher levels of accuracy & precision

- The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck: A Counterintuitive Approach to Living a Good LifeMark Manson
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New AmericaGeorge Packer
- Sapiens: A Brief History of HumankindYuval Noah Harari
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic FutureAshlee Vance
- The Library BookSusan Orlean
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space RaceMargot Lee Shetterly
- Shoe Dog: A Memoir by the Creator of NikePhil Knight
- Never Split the Difference: Negotiating As If Your Life Depended On ItChris Voss
- Grit: The Power of Passion and PerseveranceAngela Duckworth
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New AmericaGilbert King
- John AdamsDavid McCullough
- Yes PleaseAmy Poehler
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham LincolnDoris Kearns Goodwin
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of CancerSiddhartha Mukherjee
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True StoryDave Eggers
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The ClimateNaomi Klein
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy AnswersBen Horowitz
- Angela's Ashes: A MemoirFrank McCourt
- Steve JobsWalter Isaacson
- How To Win Friends and Influence PeopleDale Carnegie
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit ManJohn Perkins
- Principles: Life and WorkRay Dalio
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first CenturyThomas L. Friedman
- Fear: Trump in the White HouseBob Woodward
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't IgnoreJay Sekulow
- Bad Feminist: EssaysRoxane Gay

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