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Chickenpox or chicken pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).

It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and becomes itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring. Etiology: varicella-zoster virus (VZV)

Mode of Transmission: Chickenpox is an airborne disease spread easily through coughing or sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. Incubation/communicability: From10-21 days with a mean of 14 days or 2 weeks. The patient is contagious about a day before the eruption of rashes and continuous to be so up to the 5th or 6th day after the last scab formation or until all vesicles have become encrusted.

Signs and Symptoms: y A red, itchy rash, initially resembling insect bites, on your face, scalp, chest and back. y Small, liquid-filled blisters that break open and crust over. y Fever. y Abdominal pain or loss of appetite. y Mild headache. y General feeling of unease and discomfort (malaise) or irritability. y A dry cough. y Headache

Medical- management is symptomatic. Acyclovir, an anti-viral medication, can be administered. Nursing- Prevention of secondary infection of the skin lesions through hygienic care of the patient. Nursing care is symptomatic. Client should be provided with daily skin care. The client should also have adequate rest and nutrition.

Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious bacterial disease caused by Bordetella pertussis Etiology: Bordetella pertussis

Mode of Transmission: The whooping cough bacteria are spread from person to person in airborne droplets or by direct contact with infected throat or nasal discharges. Coughing and sneezing are the most common modes of transmission. Incubation/communicability: The incubation period (the time between infection and the onset of symptoms) for whooping cough is usually 7 to 10 days, but can be as long as 21 days.

Signs and Symptoms: Whooping cough affects the upper respiratory tract, causing the lining of the air passages to become inflamed and damaged. This leads to an excess production of mucous, which in turn irritates the respiratory tract and causes the cough characteristic of this disease. Catarrhal Stage y Insidious onset, with irritating cough that gradually becomes paroxysmal (violent) and is followed by crowing or a high pitched whoop. The disease is highly contagious in this stage. Patient also manifests colds, fever, nocturnal coughing, tiredness, and listlessness. Paroxysmal Stage y The client experiences violent, successive coughing. The client has 5-10 successive, forceful coughing which ends in a prolonged inspiratory phase or whoop. This could cause respiratory arrest in the client. The client s eyes turn red and may seem to be bleeding. Convalescent Stage y The signs and symptoms subsides and the client is on the road to recovery.

Medicaly Antibiotic therapy- The client is given Erythromycin or Cotrimoxazole for 7-10days. y Pertussis immuneglobulin- These are globulins obtained from the plasma of people who have been immunized against pertussis and have already formed antibodies. y Fluid and electrolyte replacement- This loosens the secretions and allows it to be easily expelled. Nursingy Provide adequate rest and conserve the energy of the patient,this decreases the oxygen demand and consumption of the client. y Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. y If the client experiences spasmodic cough place the client on Nothing per Orem (NPO) diet. Apply abdominal binder.

Diphtheria is an infectious disease spreading from person to person by respiratory droplets from the throat through coughing and sneezing. Etiology: toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Mode of Transmission: Diphtheria is transmitted by droplet infection through contact with a patient or carrier, or rarely articles soiled with discharges from infected lesions. Asymptomatic carriage can occur (up to 5% of people in endemic regions) but is extremely rare in developed countries. The probability of spread depends on the closeness and duration of contact. Prolonged contact (eg sleeping in the same room as a case rather than casual contact) is usually required. Incubation/communicability: The incubation period of diphtheria is 2 5 days (range, 1 10 days).

Signs and Symptoms: In its early stages, diphtheria can be mistaken for a bad sore throat. A low-grade fever and swollen neck glands are the other early symptoms. As the infection progresses, the person may:
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have difficulty breathing or swallowing complain of double vision have slurred speech even show signs of going into shock (skin that's pale and cold, rapid heartbeat, sweating, and an anxious appearance)

Medical- Persons with suspected diphtheria should be given antibiotics and antitoxin in adequate dosage and placed in isolation after the provisional clinical diagnosis is made and appropriate cultures are obtained. Respiratory support and airway maintenance should also be administered as needed. Nursingy Keep on strict isolation y Health teaching on proper hygiene and universal precaution y Instruct on liquid or soft diet if dysphagia is present y Advise full course of diphtheria vaccine if fully recovered

Neonatal tetanus is a form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns. Infants who have not acquired passive immunity because the mother has never been immunized are at risk. It usually occurs through infection of the unhealed umbilical stump, particularly when the stump is cut with a non-sterile instrument. Neonatal tetanus is common in many developing countries and is responsible for about 14% (215,000) of all neonatal deaths, but is very rare in developed countries.

Etiology: Mode of Transmission: Tetanus is not directly transmitted from person to person. Spores may be introduced through contaminated puncture wounds, lacerations, burns or contaminated injected street drugs. Tetanus can result from minor wounds considered too trivial for medical consultation. The presence of necrotic tissue or foreign bodies encourages the growth of anaerobic organism such as C. tetani. Tetanus rarely follows surgical procedures today.

Incubation/communicability: The time between infection and the first sign of symptoms is 5 days to 15 weeks, with 7 days as the average. Cases with shorter incubation periods tend to have more severe disease and thereby a greater risk of death. Signs and symptoms: Tetanus often begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles (lockjaw). Drooling,excessive sweating, irritability, fever, hand or foot spasms, uncontrolled urination or defecation and swallowing difficulty.

Medical- medical management may include use of a tetanus antitoxin, such as tetanus immune globulin (TIG). Give you antibiotics, either orally or by injection, to fight tetanus bacteria. You'll also need to receive a tetanus vaccine in order to prevent future tetanus infection. Nursingy maintenance of the airway y prevention of the complications of respiratory dysfunction, such as atelectasis y maintenance of skin integrity y compliance with the prescribed immunization schedule