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PERSAMAAN

DIFFERENSIAL
(PD)
1

Definisi & Klasifikasi


Persamaan Differensial (PD):
pers yg memuat satu/ lebih turunan
Klasifikasi:
I. Tipe:
a. 1 var bebas PD biasa
contoh: dy/dx = x + 5
dy/dx + 3 dy/dx + 2y = 0
xy + y = 3
y + 2 (y) + y = cos x
(y) + (y) + 3y = x
2

Definisi & Klasifikasi


b. > 1 var bebas PD Parsial
Contoh: 1. z/x = z + z/y
2. z/x + z/y = x +
y
II. Jenis (Orde):
jenis tertinggi dari turunan
III. Pangkat (degree):
pangkat dari turunan tertinggi
CONTOH:
(dy/dx) + (dy/dx) + y/(x+1) = e^x
PD Biasa, jenis 3, pangkat 2
3

Penyelesaian PD
Y = f(x) penyelesaian PD jika PD itu tetap memenuhi jika
y & turunannya digantikan f(x)
Contoh
y = c cos x + c sin x peny PD: dy/dx + y = 0
Bukti:
y = c cos x + c sin x dy/dx= -c sin x+c cos x
dy/dx=-c cos x- c sin x
dy/dx + y =
-c cos x - c sin x + c cos x + c sin x = 0
(TERBUKTI)

I. PD Biasa
Bentuk umum: dy/dx = f(x)
PD: dy/dx = f(x)
y = f(x) dx
Contoh soal:
1.dy/dx = 2x + 3x + 1 Tentukan y
Peny: dy = (2x + 3x + 1) dx
y = / x + / x + x + C
2. dy/dx = e^x Tentukan y
Peny: dy = e^x dx
y = e^x dx
y = e^x + C
5

I. PD Biasa
3. dy/dx = cos x. Jika x = 30 y = 1
Tentukan f(x)
Peny: dy = cos x dx
y = cos x dx
y = sin x + C
untuk x = 30 y = 1

1 = sin 30 + C
C =
y = sin x +
6

I. PD Biasa
4. dy/dx = x, n bilangan asli Tentukan y
Peny: dy = x dx
y = x dx
= [1/(n+1)] [x^(n+1)] + C
5. dy/dx = x^ Tentukan y
Peny: dy = x^ dx
y = x^ dx
y = x^/ + C

I. PD Biasa
Soal Latihan: Tentukan y
1.dy/dx = (ax + b)
2.dy/dx = 1/(2x-3)
3.dy/dx = x/(4x+5)
4.dy/dx = 2(x+1)
5.dy/dx = x/(5x-3)
6.dy/dx = sin (x+1)
7.dy/dx = sinx cosx
8.dy/dx = cosx
9.dy/dx = cos x/sinx
10.dy/dx = cosx/sinx
8

II. PD dengan variabel


terpisah

Bentuk umum: M(x) dx + N(y) dy = 0


Peny: M(x) dx + N(y) dy = C
Contoh Soal:
1.(x + 2x) dx + (3y + y + 1) dy = 0
Peny: (x + 2x) dx + (3y + y + 1)
dy = C

x + x + y + y + y = C
2. sinx dx + e^y dy = 0
Peny: sinx dx + e^y dy = C

-cos x + e^y = C
9

II. PD dengan variabel


terpisah

3. dy/dx = xy
Peny: dy/y = x dx
y dy x dx = 0
y dy - x dx = C
- y - x = C
y + x = 3C
x + y = C
4. cos 2x dx + y dy = 0
Peny: cos 2x dx + y dy = C
sin 2x + ln y = C

10

II. PD dengan variabel


terpisah
5. dy/dx = (4x + xy)/(y xy)
Peny:
(y xy)dy = (4x + xy)dx
y(1 x)dy = x (4 + y)dx
--------------------------------- : (1 x) (4 + y)
[y/ (4 + y)] dy = [x/ (1 x)] dx
[y/ (4 + y)] dy - [x/ (1 x)] dx = 0
[y/ (4 + y)] dy - [x/ (1 x)] dx = C
ln(4 + y) + ln(x + 1) = C
ln(4 + y) (x + 1) = 2C
(4 + y) (x + 1) = e^2C
(4 + y) (x + 1) = C

11

II. PD dengan variabel


terpisah

6. dy/dx = ctg x tg y
Peny:
dy/tg y = ctg x dy
ctg y dy ctg x dx = 0
ctg y dy - ctg x dx = C
ln sin y ln sin x = C
ln sin y = ln sin x + C
sin y = C sin x

12

II. PD dengan variabel


terpisah
Soal Latihan

1. y(1 x) dx + x(1 y) dy = 0
2. 2xy(4 y) dx + (y 1)(x + 2) dy = 0
3. (1 + 2x)y y = 2x(1 + y)
4. Xy dx + (x + 1) dy = 0
5. Y dx + (1 x) dy = 0
6. Y dx + (1 x) dy = 0
7. (xy x) dx + (xy + y) dy = 0
8. Y + (y 1) cos x = 0
9. sin x cos y dx + tg y cos x dy = 0
10. dy/dx = (2 y)/2(1 + x)
11. dy/dx = (4x + xy)/(y xy)
13

III. PD Homogen
Bentuk Umum: P(x,y) dx + Q(x,y) dy = 0
homogen jika P(x,y) & Q(x,y) homogen dan
berderajad sama
f(x,y) homogen dgn derajad n jika:
f(kx, ky) = k f(x,y)
Contoh Soal:
1.(x + y) dx + (y x) dy = 0
(y x ) dy = -(x + y) dx
dy/dx = -(x+y)/(y-x) = (x+y)/(x-y) = f(x,y)
Bukti: f(kx, ky) = (kx+ky)/(kx-ky) = k(x+y)/k(x-y)
= (x+y)/(x-y) = k f(x,y)
f(x,y) homogen dengan derajad 0

14

III. PD Homogen
Substitusi: y = xz
dy = x dz + z dx
Jadi: (x+y) dx + (y-x) dy = 0
(x+xz) dx + (xz-x) (x dz + z dx) = 0
(x+xz+xz-xz) dx + (xz x) x dz = 0
(x + xz) dx + x(z 1) dz = 0
x(1+z) dx + x(z-1) dz = 0
--------------------------------- : x(z+1)
dx/x + (z-1)/(z+1) dz = C
dx/x + (z-1)/(z+1) dz = C
ln x + z/(z+1) dz - 1/(z+1) dz = C
ln x + ln(z+1) arc tg Z + C
15

III. PD Homogen
Karena z = y/x
ln x + ln{(y/x)+1} = arc tg (y/x) = C
ln x + ln [(y+x)/x] arc tg(y/x) = C
ln (y+x) arc tg(y/x) = C
2. dy/dx = (4x + 3y)/2xy f(x,y)
Bukti: f(kx,ky) = k(4x + 3y)/k2xy
= (4x + 3y)/2xy = k f(x,y)
f(x,y) homogen dengan derajad 0
Substitusi: v = y/x y = vx
dy = v dx + x dv

16

III. PD Homogen
(4x+3y) dx 2xy dy = 0
(4x+3vx) dx 2xvx(v dx + x dv) = 0
x(4+3v-2v)dx - x.2vx dv = 0
---------------------------------------- : x
(4 + v) dx 2 vx dv = 0
-----------------------------------:x(4+v)
x dx 2v/(4+v) dv = 0
x dx - 2v/(4+v) dv = C
ln x ln(v+4) = C
ln x ln C = ln(v+4)
C x = V + 4
C x = y/x + 4 C x = y + 4x
17

III. PD Homogen
Soal Latihan
1.dy/dx = (3y-x)/3xy
2.dy/dx = y/x cotg y/x
3.dy/dx = [y-(x-y)]/x
4.dy/dx = 1 + y/x cos(y/x)
5.dy/dx = y/x + y/[x ln{y/x}]
6.dy/dx = (2x + 2y)/(3x + y)
7.dy/dx = y/[x + (xy)]
8.Y = (x y)/(x + y)
9. xy y = x e^(y/x)
10. (3xy + y) dx + (x + 3xy) dy = 0
18

PDHomogin
Soal:1. (x2+ y2)dx + xy dy = 0
Penyelesaian

(x2+ y2)dx + xy dy = 0
xy dy = -(x2+ y2)dx
dy/dx =-(x2+ y2)/xy
dy/dx =-{1+ (y2/ x2)}/(y/x)
F(v) = - (1+v2)/v
Rumus: dx/x + dv/{v-F(v)} = 0

dx/x + dv/{v + (1+v2)/v} = 0


dx/x + dv/{v2 + 1+v2}/v = 0
dx/x + vdv/{v2 + 1+v2}= 0
dx/x + vdv/{2v2 + 1}= 0
dx/x +1/4 d(2v2+1)/{2v2 + 1}= 0
Ln x + ln (2v2+1) = ln C
4 ln x + ln (2v2+1) = ln C
X4(2v2+1) = C

X4{2(y2/ x2)+1} = C
X4{2y2+ x2} = C
Bahan Soal
1. dy/dx = (3y-x)/3xy
dy/dx = (3y-x)/3xy
----------------------------------x (1/ x2)/(1/ x2)
dy/dx = {(y/x) 1}/3(y2/ x2)
F(v) = (v-1)/3v2

IV. PD Linier
Bentuk Umum: dy/dx + P(x) y = Q(x) ..(1)
Peny: Cara Bernoulli
Misalkan y = u.v u = u(x); v = v(x)

y= u.v + u.v
Pers (1) menjadi:
u.v + u.v + P.u.v = Q
v (u + P.u) + u.v = Q
Syarat: (u + P.u) = 0 atau u.v = 0 ..(2)
Maka: u/u = -P atau (du/dx)/u = -P
du/u = -P dx du/u = -P dx
ln u = - P dx = ln e^(- P dx )
Jadi u = e^(- P dx)
(2) menjadi uv = Q e^(- P dx) .v = Q
v = e^(- P dx). Q dx +C
y = u.v = e^(- P dx) . [e^(- P dx). Q dx +C]
22

IV. PD Linier
Contoh Soal:
1. dx/dy y/x = x
Peny: P(x) = - 1/x dan Q(x) = x
Dengan rumus:
y = e^(- P dx) . [e^(- P dx). Q dx +C]
= e^ (1/x) dx .[e^((1/x) dx). x dx +C]
= x [(1/x) .x dx + C] = x (x + C)
y = x + Cx
2. (sin x y) dx tg x dy = 0
Peny: (sin x y) dx = tg x dy
dy/dx = (sin x y) /tg x
dy/dx + y/tg x = sin x cos x
P(x) = 1/tg x dan Q(x) = sin x cos x
23

IV. PD Linier
y = e^(- P dx) . [e^(- P dx). Q dx +C]
= e^(- (1/tg x) dx) . [e^(- (1/tg x) dx). Sin x cos x dx +C]
* (1/tg x) dx = (cos x/sin x) dx = ln sin x
e^(- (1/tg x) dx = e^(-ln sin x) = 1/sin x
Jadi y = 1/sinx [sin x. sin x cos x dx +C]
= 1/sin x [sin x d(sin x) +C]
= C/sin x + sin x
Atau 3y sin x = sin x + C

24

3. dy/dx 2xy =
6ye^y

P = -2x, Q = 6ye^y

IV. PD Linier
Soal Latihan:
1.y y = 2 e^x
2.Y 2y = cos 2x
3.dy/dx 2xy = 6ye^y
4.dy/dx + y = e^x
5.(x + 1)dy/dx + xy = x
6.dy/dx = y sin x
7.dy + (y 2 sin x) cos x dx = 0
8.x ln x dy/dx + xy = 1
9.dy/dx = (x + 2y)/x
10.dy/dx = (4 ln x 2xy)/x
26

V. PD Eksak
Bentuk umum: P(x.y) dx + Q(x,y) dy = 0 .. (1)
Ciri: ruas kiri = diferensial dari f(x,y) = 0
u(x,y) sedemikian sehingga:
u/x = P(x,y) dan u/y = Q(x,y)
Pers (1) eksak jika P/y = Q/x
Contoh Soal:
1.(2x + 3y) dx + (3x + 4y) dy = 0
Peny: (2x + 3y) dx + (3x + 4y) dy = 0 . (1)
P = 2x + 3y dan Q = 3x + 4y
P/y = 3 dan Q/x = 3
P/y = Q/x pers (1) adalah PD Eksak

27

V. PD Eksak
P = f/x = 2x + 3y dan Q = f/y = 3x + 4y
f(x,y) = (2x + 3y) dx + C(y)
= x + 3xy + C(y)
f/y = 3x + C(y) = 3x + 4y
C(y) = 4y
C(y) = 4y dy = 2y + C
Jadi f(x,y) = x + 3xy + 2y = C
2. 2xydx + (x + 1)dy = 0
Peny: 2xydx + (x + 1)dy = 0
(1)
P = 2xy dan Q = x + 1
P/y = 2x dan Q/x = 2x
P/y = Q/x pers (1) adalah PD Eksak
28

V. PD Eksak
P = f/x = 2xy dan Q = f/y = x +
1
f(x,y) = 2xy dx + C(y)
= xy + C(y)
f/y = x + C(y) = x + 1
C(y) = 1
C(y) = dy = y + C
Jadi f(x,y) = xy + y = C
29

V. PD Eksak
Soal Latihan:
1.(2x + y) dx + (x 2y) dy = 0
2.(15xy-y)dx + (10xy-4xy+5y)dy = 0
3.e^xy(1+2xy)dx + x e^xy dy = 0
4.3xy(1+x)dx+[((1+x) + sin y] dy = 0
5.(2x cos y e^x)dx x sin y dy = 0
6.(y + 6xy)dx + (2xy+2x3)dy = 0
7.(3x+3xy)dx + (3xy 3y + 2y)dy = 0
8.y sin 2x dx 3y cos x dy = 0
9.(3y+y sin 2xy)dx + (6xy + x sin 2xy)dy = 0
10.(2x/y + 5y - 4x)dx + (3y - x/y + 10xy) dy
=0
11.(x +y)dx + (x + y)dy = 0
30

Penyelesaian soal
2. (15xy-y)dx + (10xy-4xy+5y)dy = 0
P = 15xy-y ;Q =10xy-4xy+5y
P/y = 30xy- 4y3 dan Q/x = 30xy- 4y3
f(x,y) = (15xy-y) dx + C(y)
f(x,y) = 5 x3 y2 -xy+ C(y)
f/y = 10xy-4xy+ C(y)
10xy-4xy+ C(y) = 10xy-4xy+5y
C(y) = 5y
y=y5 + C1
-> f(x,y) = 5 x3 y2 -xy+ y5 = C

6. (y + 6xy)dx + (2xy+2x3)dy = 0

P = (y + 6xy) ;Q =(2xy+2x3)

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


Bentuk umum: (ax+by+c)dx + (px+qy+r)dy = 0

(1)

1). Bila c = 0 dan r = 0, maka (1) menjadi:


(ax+by)dx + (px+qy)dy = 0
PD homogen, substitusi v = y/x
2). Bila (px+qy) = k(ax+by) dgn k = konstanta
maka (1) menjadi:
(ax+by+c)dx + [k(ax+by)+r]dy = 0 . (2)
misalkan ax+by=z atau adx+bdy = dz,
(2) menjadi: (z+c)dx + (kz+r)[(dz-adx)/b]=0
atau [z+c-(kaz+ra)/b]dx+[(kz+r)/b]dz =0
PD dgn variabel-2 terpisah

33

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


3). Bila a/p b/q; c 0 dan r 0
I. Dengan menggunakan variabel baru:
ax+by+c=u
dengan
a b
px+qy+r=v
p q
0
dan didapat: adx+bdy=du
pdx+qdy=dv
du
b
dv
q
qdu-bdv
dx= --------- = --------------a
b
aq-bp
p
q
34

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


a
du
p
dv
adv - pdu
dy = ------------ = ---------------a
b
aq bp
p
q
Masukkan harga-2 dx dan dy ke dalam
pers (2)
didapat PD homogen
(qu-pv)du + (av-bu)dv = 0, substitusi z
= u/v
35

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


II. Dengan mengambil bentuk-bentuk:
ax+by+c = 0
adalah 2 pers garis
px+qy+r = 0
yang berpotongan
misalkan titik pot ke-2 grs iru (x,y)
dengan substitusi:
X = x - x atau x = X + x ; dx = dX
Y = y - y atau y = Y + y ; dy = dY
ke dlm pers (1), didpt:
(aX + bY)dX + (pX + qY) dY = 0
PD Homogen, dgn substitusi v = Y/X

36

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


Contoh Soal:
1.(x+y+1)dx + (2x+2y+1)dy = 0
Peny:
(x+y+1)dx + (2x+2y+1)dy = 0 .. (1)
ternyata: 2x+2y = 2(x+y) k = 2
Pers. (1) bisa ditulis:
(x+y+1)dx + [2(x+y)+1]dy = 0 ..
(2)
misalkan: x+y=z dx+dy = dz
dy=dz-dx
Pers. 2 menjadi:
(z+1)dx + (2z+1)(dz-dx) = 0
(z+1-2z-1)dx + (2z+1)dz = 0

37

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


-zdx + (2z+1)dz = 0
------------------------- : z
-dx + [(2z+1)/z]dz = 0
-dx + (2+ 1/z)dz = 0
maka -dx + (2+ 1/z)dz = C
-x + 2z + ln z = C ganti z =
x+y
-x + 2x + 2y + ln(x+y) = C
x + 2y + ln(x+y) = C
38

VI. PD dengan Koef-2 Linier


2. (x+2y-1)dx + (2x-y-7)dy = 0
Peny:
a. (x+2y-1)dx + (2x-y-7)dy = 0 (1)
mis.: x+2y+1 = u maka dx+2dy = du
2x-y=7=v
2dx-dy=dv
du +2
dv
-1
-du-2dv
du+2dv
dx = ---------- = ---------- = ---------1
2
-1-4
5
2
-1

39

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier
1
du
2
dv
dv-2du
2du-dv
dy = ---------- = ---------- = ---------1
2
-5
5
2
-1
harga-2 dx dan dy dimasukkan dlm pers.
(1)
u[(du+2dv)/5] + v[(2du-dv)/5] = 0
-------------------------------------------- x5
u(du+2dv) + v(2du-dv) = 0
(u+2v)du + (2u-v)dv = 0
(2)
PD Homogen
40

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier

Substitusi: u = vz
Maka
du = vdz + zdv
Pers (2) menjadi:
(vz+2v)(vdz+zdv) + (2vz-v)dv = 0
(vz+2v)dz + (vz+2vz+2vz-v)dv = 0
v(z+2)dz + v(z+4z-1)dv = 0
------------------------------------ : v(z+4z-1)
[(z+2)/(z+4z-1)]dz + dv/v = 0
[(z+2)/(z+4z-1)]dz + dv/v = C

41

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier

[d(z+4z)]/(z+4z-1) + dv/v = C
ln(z+4z-1) + ln v = C
ln(z+4z-1) + ln v = 2 C
ln v(u/v + 4 u/v 1) = 2C - z = u/v
ln v(u/v + 4 u/v 1) = 2C ambil 2C = ln C
u + 4 uv v = C ganti harga-2 u dan v
(x+2y-1) + 4(x+2y-1)(2x-y-7)-(2x-y-7) = C
(x+4y+1+4xy-2x-4y)+(8x-4xy-28x+16xy-8y-56y8x+4y+28)+(-4x-y-49+4xy+28x-14y) = C

42

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier

5x+20xy-5y-10x-70y-20 = C
X+4xy-y-2x-14y = C
(C = C + 4)

b. (x+2y-1)dx + (2x-y-7)dy = 0
Peny. dengan cara II
(x+2y-1)dx + (2x-y-7)dy = 0 ..
(1)
ambil bentuk-bentuk:
x+2y-1 = 0
2x- y-7 = 0
pers 2 grs yg berpotongan

43

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier
1
2
7 -1
-1 - 14
x = -------- = ----------- = 3
1
2
-1 - 4
2 -1
1
1
2
7
7-2
y = ---------- = -------- = -1
1
2
-5

-2

44

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier
Jadi titik potong kedua garis (3, -1)
Mis. X = x 3 maka x = X + 3 dx = dX
Y = y + 1 maka y = Y 1 dy = dY
Masukkan dalam pers (1)
(X+3+2Y-2-1)dX + (2X+6-Y+1-7)dY = 0
(X+2Y)dX + (2X-Y)dY = 0
PD Homogen
Substitusi y = vX
dst
Didapat jawab: x+4xy-y-2x-14y = 0

45

VI. PD dengan Koef-2


Linier
Soal Latihan:
1.dy/dx = (6x-2y-7)/(2x+3y-6)
2.dy/dx = (3x-2y+1)/(6x-4y+1)
3.2(x-2y-5)dx + (5x-y-7)dy = 0
4.(2x-y+3)dx + (4x-2y+7)dy = 0
5.(15x+6y-7)dx + (5x+2y-3)dy = 0

46

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