Anda di halaman 1dari 55

PROTEIN

DEFINITION AMINO ACIDS FUNCTIONS QUALITY HEALTH EFFECTS RENI/ SOURCES OF PROTEIN

PROTEIN

DEFINITION
Chemically, proteins contain the same atoms as carbohydrates and lipids -- carbon, hydrogen and oxygen --- but proteins also contain nitrogen atoms. These nitrogen atoms give the name amino (nitrogen containing) to the amino acids --- the links in the chain of amino acids.
NEXT

DEFINITION
The word protein originated from the Greek word that means primary, holding the first place. Mulder, a Dutch chemist, proposed the name in 1840 and as the years of research progressed about amino acids, the name protein is truly deserving

MENU

AMINO ACIDS
These are building blocks of protein; each contains an amino acid group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom and a distinctive side group attached to the central carbon atom.

NEXT

CLASSIFICATION According to Essentiality


1. Essential amino acid 2. Semi essential amino acid 3. Non essential amino acid

ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID


One that cannot be synthesized by the body from materials readily available, at the speed to keep with normal growth rate. They must be supplied readymade or preformed in the diet. Also called DIETARY ESSENTIAL
NEXT

10 ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS


H - histidine I - isoleucine L - lycine L - leucine M - methionine A - arginine P - phenylalanine
Classification

T - threonine V - valine T - tryptophan

SEMI-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID


Or semi-indispensable amino acid reduces the need for a particular essential amino acid or partially spares it. It cannot completely replace the essential amino acid.

NEXT

6 SEMI - ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS


C - cystine H - histidine A - arginine G - glycine T - tyrosine S - serine
Classification

NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID also called dispensable amino acid because it can be synthesized by the body as long as the materials for synthesis are adequate.
NEXT

8 NON - ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS


G - glycine A - alanine A - Aspartic acid P - proline N - norleucine C - citrulline
MENU

H - hydroxyglycine H - hydroxyproline

PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
1. Growth and maintenance. Proteins form integral parts of most body structure such as skin, tendons, membranes, muscles, organs and bones, As such they support the growth and repair of body tissues. 2. Enzymes. Proteins facilitate chemical reaction
NEXT

PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
3. Hormones. Proteins regulate body processes. (some, but not all hormones are made of protein) 4. Anti Bodies. Proteins inactivate foreign invaders, thus protecting the body against diseases.
NEXT

PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
5. Fluid and Electrolyte balance. Proteins help to maintain fluid volume and the composition of the body fluids. 6. Acid - base balance. Proteins help maintain the acid base balance of fluids by acting as buffers
NEXT

PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
7. Transportation. Proteins transport substances, such as lipids, vitamins, minerals and oxygen around the body 8. Energy. Proteins provide some fuel for the bodys energy needs
MENU

PROTEIN QUALITY
LIMITING AMINO ACIDS amino acids lacking in protein

COMPLETE PROTEINS are proteins containing all the essential amino acids in amounts sufficient for growth and maintenance of life
NEXT

PROTEIN QUALITY
PARTIALLY COMPLETE PROTEINS are proteins that can maintain life but do not support growth

INCOMPLETE PROTEINS proteins that cannot support life and growth

NEXT

PROTEIN QUALITY
COMPLEMENTARY PROTEINS DIGESTIBILITY Ideally, a protein is both complete and easily digestible, so that enough amino acids are available for protein synthesis. synthesis. Such protein is a high quality protein. protein. Digestibility depends on a proteins configuration, other foods eaten with it, and reactions that influence the amino acids. acids.
NEXT

PROTEIN QUALITY
COMPLEMENTARY PROTEINS REFERENCE PROTEIN One of the most complete and digestible proteins is egg. Until the early 1990s, egg egg. 1990s, protein was used as the standard for measuring protein quality. quality.

NEXT

MEASURES OF PROTEIN QUALITY


1.AMINO 1. AMINO ACID SCORING a method of evaluating protein quality by comparing a test proteins amino acid pattern with that of the reference protein. protein. Sometimes called chemical scoring. scoring.

NEXT

MEASURES OF PROTEIN QUALITY


2. BIOLOGICAL VALUE (BV) 2.BIOLOGICAL the amount of protein nitrogen that is retained for growth, and maintenance, expressed as a percentage of the protein nitrogen that has been digested and absorbed. absorbed. A measure of protein quality. quality.

NEXT

MEASURES OF PROTEIN QUALITY


3. NET PROTEIN UTILIZATION (NPU) the amount of protein nitrogen that is retained from a given amount of protein nitrogen eaten. Instead of measuring eaten. retention of absorbed nitrogen (BV) it measures the retention of food nitrogen. nitrogen.

NEXT

MEASURES OF PROTEIN QUALITY


4. PROTEIN EFFICIENCY RATIO it measures the weight gain of a growing animal and compares to the animals protein intake. intake.

NEXT

PROTEIN UTILIZATION
After protein ingestion, protein will be digested, absorbed, metabolized, and bybyproducts will be excreted. excreted. Briefly summarized, the end products of protein digestion are the amino acids most of which are absorbed directly into the portal circulation. circulation.
NEXT

PROTEIN UTILIZATION
In the metabolic pool the amino acids undergo any of the following changes: changes: 1.Synthesis 1. Synthesis of cells, organs, hair, etc. etc. glands, muscles,

2. Formation of fluids and secretions 2.Formation including enzymes and hormones

NEXT

PROTEIN UTILIZATION
3.Provisions of non-protein nitrogenous nonsubstances for creatinine, niacin, etc. etc. 4. Deamination to provide energy. energy. 5. Reamination to form new amino acids The end products of oxidizing proteins are carbon dioxide, water, and urea. urea.
NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION

1. AMINO ACID BALANCE

NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION

2. IMMOBILITY

NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION

3. EMOTIONAL STRESS

NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION

4.CALORIC INTAKE

NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION

5. INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM

NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION


6. FOOD PROCESSING

-Lysine in breads has reduced biological value in toasted breads -Nine out of 17 legumes were adversely affected by dry heat. heat. -Overcooked meats are more resistant to digestive enzymes than medium done meats
NEXT

FACTORS AFFECTING PROTEIN UTILIZATION


6. FOOD PROCESSING

- Other amino acids may be destroyed or rendered non-utilizable when proteins nonare heated at high temperatures and they may be lost when foods are stored at room temperature. temperature. -In some instances, browning of food by heating or long storage may lead to lost of palatability and protein availability
NEXT

HEALTH EFFECTS AND RECOMMENDED INTAKE OF PROTEIN


PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION When people are deprived of protein, energy or both, the result is Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). (PEM). PEM is most prevalent in Africa, Central America, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. Asia.

NEXT

HEALTH EFFECTS AND RECOMMENDED INTAKE OF PROTEIN


PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION
2 FORMS OF PEM

KWASHIORKOR

MARASMUS
NEXT

KWASHIORKOR

DEFINITION

CHARACTERISTICS

NEXT

KWASHIORKOR
-was originally a Ghanaian word meaning the evil spirit that infects the first child when the second child is born. born. It typically sets in between 18 months and 2 years. years. This condition is due to lack of protein in the diet. diet.

Menu

KWASHIORKOR
-older infants and children (1-3 years old) -some weight loss -some muscles wasting with retention of some body fat -growth is from 60 to 80% 80% weight for age -Edema
NEXT

young

KWASHIORKOR
-enlarged fatty liver -apathy, misery, irritability, sadness -Anorexia -hair is dry and brittle, easily pulled out, changes in color, becomes straight -skin develops lesions
NEXT

MARASMUS

DEFINITION

CHARACTERISTICS

NEXT

MARASMUS
-occurs most commonly in children from 6 to 18 months of age in all the overoverpopulated urban slums of the world. This is due to lack of total energy in the diet.

Menu

MARASMUS
-Infancy (less than 2 years) -Develops slowly, chronic PEM -Severe muscle wasting with fat -Growth less than 60% 60% weight for age -No detectable edema -No fatty liver
NEXT

MARASMUS
-Anxiety, apathy -Good appetite, possible -Hair is sparce, thin and dry easily pulled out -Skin is dry thin and easily wrinkled

MENU

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)


MOON FACE Peculiar rounded prominence of the cheeks, which protrude over the general level of the nasolabial folds

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)


DYSPIGMENTATION OF HAIR AND SKIN Shows a distinct lightening of its normal color, most usually evident in a distance.

RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE


FOR ADULTS 1.12gm/kg desirable body 12gm/kg weight or 10-15% of the Total Energy 10-15% Requirement (TER)

Males ages 20 - 70 plus

60grams/day 60grams/day

Female ages 20 - 70 plus 52grams/day 52grams/day

NEXT

SOURCES OF PROTEIN
LOW COST SOURCES: SOURCES: - tiny fishes with bones -Lean carabeef -Shellfish like tahong, talangka, small crabs, small shrimps -glandular organs like intestine -Legumes
NEXT

SOURCES OF PROTEIN
OTHER GOOD SOURCES: SOURCES: -Meat like fish, pork, beef, chicken; Milk, Egg chicken; and Cheese SCP (singled celled proteins) is a mixture of edible microorganisms which is dried and treated to be odorless and tasteless FPC (fish protein concentrate) protein-rich proteinmixture
NEXT