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MENULIS REFLEKSI

Definisi
Shulman (1987) mendefinisikan refleksi sebagai satu fasa di mana guru meninjau semula pengajarannya di dalam bilik darjah dalam aspek: Pembelajaran daripada pengalaman Proses yang dipandukan oleh data yang ada

Definisi
Reflection is what allows us to learn from our experiences: it is an assessment of where we have been and where we want to go next. ~ Kenneth Wolf Refleksilah yang membenarkan anda belajar daripada pengalaman anda: ianya suatu penilaian dari tahap mana anda bermula sehingga ke tahap mana anda akan capai

Jurnal Reflektif
Jurnal reflektif merupakan instrumen mendokumentasikan
amalan secara reflektif Pemikiran tindak susulan amalan Pemikiran menanyakan dan mencabar status quo dan meneroka idea-idea

Kenapa Menulis Jurnal?


Penulisan jurnal adalah dekat sekali ke natural speech, and writing can flow without selfconsciousness or inhibition. (Schneider,1994) Ia mendedahkan proses-proses pemikiran dan tabiat mental Ia membantu ingatan Ia memberi satu konteks untuk healing dan perkembangan Ia merupakan satu saluran untuk mengamalkan penulisan harian tanpa sekatan bentuk, audience dan penilaian (Sommer 1989)

REFLEKSI P&P YANG LALU

Mengenal pasti Masalah, Isu/ Situasi

Tinjauan Awal / Mengutip dan menganalisis data tinjauan awal

GELUNGAN KEDUA

1) MENENTUKAN ISU KEPERIHATINAN / FOKUS KAJIAN

(5) MEMBUAT REFLEKSI TERHADAP KEBERKESANAN TINDAKAN

(2) MERANCANG TINDAKAN / INTERVENSI P&P

(4) MENGUMPUL DAN MENGANALISIS DATA

(3) BERTINDAK/ MELAKSANAKAN TINDAKAN PEMANTAUAN TINDAKAN

Two sorts of Reflection Terdapat dua jenis refleksi: refleksi sewaktu bertindak Refleksi mengenai tindakan

Two sorts of Reflection


Refleksi sewaktu bertindak berlaku semasa anda bertugas, dan anda menyedari perlakuan anda sewaktu itu

REFLEKSI SEWAKTU TINDAKAN This is the way any confident, experienced practitioner works:

Thinking one step ahead (oh good, if that's happened the next thing is to... ) Being critical (no, not there, try just here); Storing experience for the future (I could have said that better - next time...) Analysing (she's saying that to test me out better respond cautiously here) and so on EG: They were too nice to tell me to go away, I think.
Should I leave? I felt guilty about leaving, so I hanged around who knows, I might be needed for some clarifications? - Goh (2000)

There is a hawk in your mind, hovering over your every action, its sharp eyes missing nothing.

But that hawk can only : See things from one point of view: your own. Offer split-second reflection - because of necessity you move onto the next action, and the next thought. So - here comes the value of:

Two sorts of Reflection


Refleksi mengenai tindakan is what we usually mean when we refer to reflective practice. This is the reflecting you do after the event: thinking through, and often discussing the incident with a colleague or supervisor. To an extent we all do it - whether formally at work, or informally over coffee / beer either with colleagues or friends / family

Menulis Refleksi mengenai tindakan


Merujuk kepada amalan reflektif. Membuat refleksi selepas peristiwa dan mendokumentasikannya: berfikir, menilai, membincang dengan rakan sejawat atau staf kanan Boleh berlaku secara formal sewaktu kerja, atau secara tidak formal sewaktu makan/minum dengan rakan atau dengan keluarga.

Selepas menjalankan kajian tindakan ini saya dapati kaedah pengajaran koperatif ini amat sesuai dan memberikan kesan yang baik kepada para pelajar..saya sudah bersedia dan tahu apa yang perlu saya buat untuk menggalakkan mereka, menggerakkan mereka agar mereka berusaha dan tidak terus menerus mengharapkan rakan-rakan untuk meniru sahaja - Rosmah Onong, (2000).

Pre-requisites for Reflective Practitioners

 Respect and have faith in yourself.  Trust the reflective process.  Uncertainty is vital for learning and change to take place. So:  Enjoy it. Give yourself the gift of some reflective space.  Don't expect answers; but questions leading to yet more dynamic questions.

Proses Refleksi

Bila During lesson/experience * Immediately after the lesson/ experience  At the end of the school day  During my planning period  First thing in the morning  Wednesday during my lunch period  Tuesday while my students are in ________________

Proses Refleksi
Di mana y In my room y In my office y In the library y At home y In the shower y In the car as I commute to and from work
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Proses Refleksi
Bagaimana  On the computer  Sticky notes on the lesson/artifact  Reflection sheets attached to the evidence  Reflective journaling  Verbal reflection on the video  Audio tapes  On a Dictaphone

Menulis Refleksi
Select (memileh):What evidence/artifacts have you included? Eg. hasil kerja pelajar
Describe (menghuraikan): This step involves a description of the circumstances, situation or issues related to the evidence or artifact. Four "W" questions are usually addressed: y Who was involved? (eg. Pelajar) y What were the circumstances, concerns, or issues? (penggunaan suatu strategi yang baru) y When did the event occur? (sewaktu pelajaran) y Where did the event occur? (kelas, makmal, bilik teknologi, etc)

KEPERIHATINAN?

SIAPA?

BUKTI

cabaran mengajar mata pelajaran matematik bagi tajuk-tajuk mudah yang masih belum dikuasai WHEN? oleh murid, khasnya tajuk membundarkan nombor bulat kepada ratus, ribu,dan puluh ribu. Prestasi ujian mereka WHERE? masih rendah

Menganalisa: This step involves "digging deeper." The "Why" of the evidence or artifact and the "How" of its relationship to your teaching practice should be addressed. Eg. Hasil projek yang melampau ekspektasi kerana strategi yang berkesan..)

Apabila saya mendapati objektif pengajaran masih belum tercapai sepenuhnya, saya merasa sungguh bersalah kerana masih ada murid yang belum boleh menguasai kemahiran tersebut. Perkara ini seolah-olah menunjukkan bahawa saya sendiri tidak melaksanakan tanggungjawab saya sepenuhnya semasa berada di bilik darjah.

Menilai kendiri (Appraise): In the previous three steps, you have described and analyzed an experience, a piece of evidence, or an activity. The actual self-assessment occurs at this stage as you interpret the activity or evidence and evaluate its appropriateness and impact. (eg. menilai tindakan strategi anda dan mendatang kepada satu kesimpulan..)

Perkara ini seolah-olah menunjukkan bahawa saya sendiri tidak melaksanakan tanggungjawab saya sepenuhnya semasa berada di bilik darjah. Mungkin saya boleh
mengaplikasikan kaedah atau teknik yang baru untuk lebih memudahkan pengajaran sub-topik tersebut. Saya juga mungkin boleh mengambilkira teknik pengajaran guru-guru matematik yang lain sekiranya boleh diaplikasikan di bilik darjah secara berkesan.

Mengubah (Transform): This step holds the greatest opportunity for growth as you use the insights gained from reflection in improving and transforming your practice. (eg. Terangkan bagaimana pengalaman ini telah memberi manfaat kepada anda, help you to grow professionally in certain aspects, changed your thinking, perceptions, etc) The reflections helped me to see that I actually was making a difference, even though it didnt always seem like it. ~ Novice Teacher

Writing a Reflective Splurge


Jangan peduli nahu, sintaks, ejaan dulu. Anda boleh membuat pembetulan kemudian Try not to censor reactions, emotional responses, feelings. elakkan menyekat reaksi, balasan emosi dan perasaan Refrain from judgements at this stage. Pada peringkat ini, elakkan dari membuat penilaian Be as creative in your understanding of what constituted vital in your choice of time when... , and in your understanding of learned - there are many many ways to learn. Remember this writing is for you. You need not share it with anyone.... Bersikap kreatif

Writing a Reflective Splurge Selepas anda selesai menulis draf pertama, baca semula dengan teliti penulisan anda fokus kepada kandungan Bersikap terbuka kepada divergent connections - things previously perceived as separate, or inappropriate together. Be open to such underlying links and to fresh understandings and awarenesses. Jot notes in the margins etc..

Contoh Refleksi awal


1. Masalah yang dihadapi Cabaran mengajar mata pelajaran matematik bagi tajuk-tajuk mudah yang masih belum dikuasai oleh murid, khasnya tajuk membundarkan nombor bulat kepada ratus, ribu,dan puluh ribu. Prestasi ujian mereka masih rendah

Contoh Refleksi awal


2. Punca terjadinya masalah: Puas juga saya mencari kelemahan pengajaran saya, mungkin pengajaran saya tidak berkesan, atau saya tidak berpandukan buku panduan guru untuk mengajar sub-topik tersebut. Mungkin juga ini disebabkan oleh kelemahan murid yang tidak memberikan tumpuan semasa saya mengajar. Walau bagaimanapun saya masih gagal untuk mencapai objektif saya agar semua murid boleh menguasai kemahiran tersebut.

Contoh Refleksi awal


3. Perasaan terhadap masalah: Apabila saya mendapati objektif pengajaran masih belum tercapai sepenuhnya, saya merasa sungguh bersalah kerana masih ada murid yang belum boleh menguasai kemahiran tersebut. Perkara ini seolah-olah menunjukkan bahawa saya sendiri tidak melaksanakan tanggungjawab saya sepenuhnya semasa berada di bilik darjah.

4. Cadangan untuk mengatasi masalah: Mungkin saya boleh mengaplikasikan kaedah atau teknik yang baru untuk lebih memudahkan pengajaran sub-topik tersebut. Saya juga mungkin boleh mengambilkira teknik pengajaran guru-guru matematik yang lain sekiranya boleh diaplikasikan di bilik darjah secara berkesan.

5. Tindakan segera yang boleh diambil: Saya akan mencuba teknik permainan matematik yang baru ini pada minggu hadapan. Jika teknik ini berkesan, saya akan mencadangkan kepada ketua panitia matematik. (Sumber: Ronny Yunus, SK Kiawayan, Tambunan, Sabah: Kursus Kajian Tindakan Zon Sabah, Julai, 2001).

ow to Start Writing
Begin by allowing the pen/cil to cover the pages on its own: 1. choose a comfortable uninterrupted place and time, and writing material you like 2. make sure you have everything you need to hand - like coffee 3. write whatever is in your head, uncensored 4. don't think about what you are writing, it will probably be disconnected and might seem to be rubbish - but don't stop to think or be critical! 5. allow it to flow with no reference to spelling, grammar, proper form. 6. give yourself permission to say anything, whatever it is. 7. You don't even have to reread it. Whatever you write it can't be the wrong thing - because no-one will read your writing in this form. 8. time yourself to write without stopping for about six minutes

allow your writing to be purposeless. You may find a subject emerges you wish to pursue for longer. If so follow the vein - whatever it is, and the same way of writing, for about twenty minutes. Now you no longer have a blank sheet or screen in front of you. You may have written quite a lot by now, or only a little seeming rubbish. Don't worry: the six minutes writing sometimes turns up gold, sometimes dross. It is always useful, however, for beginning to scratch the surface. As you write in this next way, try and remind yourself this is the first draft only, so it doesn't matter what you say - because you can redraft it - no-one else need read it. What matters is capturing those ideas.

Sharing your Writing with a Peer


Your writing has the power to influence another, and them you. Penulisan anda dapat mempengaruhi orang-orang lain, dan mereka pula boleh mempengaruhi anda

Here are some guidelines to the reader and the writer:


Be kind and supportive! Not negative! Read and comment on the writing, rather than the person who has written it. Any written or oral discussion should be confidential to the parties involved, unless they specifically decide otherwise. Don't apologise for your writing - you are all in the same position - it can become like a competition - who can apologise the most convincingly!