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METALS

Learning Objectives:

What is METAL? Different Types of Metals Ferrous, Non-Ferrous, Alloys Main focus of Ferrous Metals Properties of Metals Characteristics of Ferrous Metals with examples Advantages/Disadvantages of Ferrous Metals

METALS
Metals are Solid at room temperature, except mercury, which is liquid ! very high melting point. shiny when they cut. good conductors of heat and electricity. usually strong & malleable so they can hammered into shape. Metals have Metals are Metals are Metals are be

METALS

METALS

METALS

METALS
Ferrous Alloys Containing iron & mixture of almost all are magnetic. small e.g. mild-steel, cast-iron, toolsubstance Steel etc. Ferrous Alloys Alloys Non-Ferrous Do not contain iron. e.g. aluminium, copper, silver, gold, lid, tin etc. A metals, or a metal & amount of other

Non-Ferrous

METALS
METALS & ALLOYS Metals are available in pure or alloy form. Pure Metals such as pure aluminium or pure copper, contain only one type of metal. They are not mixed with any other metal. Alloys are mixture of two or more pure metals. Alloys tend to have better strength properties than pure metals. Alloys and pure metals often have special physical properties.

PROPERTIES OF METALS
1. Strength - The ability of a material to stand up to forces being applied without it bending, breaking, shattering or deforming in any way.

2.

Elasticity - The ability of a material to absorb force and flex in different directions, returning to its original position.

3.

Plasticity - The ability of a material to be change in shape permanently.

4.

Ductility - The ability of a material to change shape (deform) usually by stretching along its length.

PROPERTIES OF METALS
5. Tensile Strength The ability of a material to stretch without breaking or snapping.

6.

Malleability - The ability of a material to be reshaped in all directions without cracking.

7.

Toughness - A characteristic of a material that does not break or shatter when receiving a blow or under a sudden shock. Conductivity - The ability of a material to conduct electricity.

8.

PROPERTIES OF METALS
9. Hardness The ability of a material to resist scratching, wear and tear & indentation.

FERROUS-METALS
1. Mild Steel
Composition: Iron alloy with 0.3% carbon Properties: Malleable and ductile, and therefore bends fairly easily Uses: nuts, bolts, screws, tubes etc.

Methods of Identification Appearance: Bright drawn mild steel has a smooth, bright surface; black mild steel is covered with a blue-grey oxide Dropping: Gives out a ringing note Grinding: Gives off a shower of long white sparks Effect of Heating: Slightly tougher but little change

FERROUS-METALS
2. Tool Steel / cast steel / carbon steel
Composition: Iron alloy with 0.5%-1.5% carbon Properties: Tough rather than hard, and fairly ductile Uses: Springs and most tools such as hammer heads, drills, chisels, shears etc

Methods of Identification Appearance: Has a smooth skin of black oxide Dropping: Gives out a high ringing note Grinding: Moderate number of red sparks Effect of Heating: Becomes hard and brittle

FERROUS-METALS
3. cast iron
Composition: Iron alloy with 2%-4% carbon Properties: Brittle, snaps before it will bend. Strong in compression Uses: Vices, cylinder blocks for car engines, frames for most machines

Methods of Identification Appearance: Grey with a granular surface Dropping: gives out a dull note Grinding: Gives off a few dull sparks Effect of Heating: No change

ADVANTAGES OF FERROUS METALS


1. High strength to weight ratio it minimise the substructures cost, which beneficial in poor ground condition. E.g. The Newark Dyke Rail Bridge comprises 77 meter long, 11.25 meter wide bowstring with 820 tonnes of S355 steel. This bridge use IMD (Interactive Model Technique) reduced the time required to assess the dynamic response of the structure. This bridge was the first UK steel bridge to be designed for the next generation of 225 km/hr trains.

ADVANTAGES OF FERROUS METALS


2. High quality material readily available worldwide in various certificate grades. Speed of construction Versatility steel suits range of construction methods & sequences. Modification & repair Recycling Durability Aesthetics steel has a broad architectural possibilities.

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

DISADVANTAGES OF FERROUS METALS


1. 2. 3. Costly waste High cost of final finishing & polishing Environmental issue

RECAP
Metal Different types of metals ferrous, non-ferrous, alloy non-ferrous, alloy Properties of metals Strength Elasticity Plasticity ductility tensile strength malleability toughness conductivity hardness Examples of ferrous metals, uses, methods of identification Advantages Disadvantages Homework