Anda di halaman 1dari 50

Elektronika Daya

Pekik Argo Dahono

Elektronika Daya
Disiplin ilmu yang mempelajari penggunaan teknologi elektronika dalam konversi energi (daya) elektrik. Mengapa energi (daya) elektrik perlu dikonversikan? Hampir semua peralatan listrik bekerja kurang efisien atau tidak bisa bekerja pada sumber energi (daya) elektrik yang tersedia. Banyak pembangkit energi (daya) elektrik nonkonvensional mempunyai bentuk yang tidak kompatibel dengan sumber energi (daya) elektrik lainnya.

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

Konverter Daya
Daya masukan Daya keluaran
Konverterdaya
Beban

Pengukuran

Pengukuran

Pengendali

Acuan

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

Klasifikasi Konverter Daya


Konverter DC-ke-DC (Chopper) Konverter AC-ke-DC (Penyearah) Konverter DC-ke-AC (Inverter) Konverter AC-ke-AC (Cycloconverter/Matrix)

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

Konverter Sinyal dan Daya


Konverter Sinyal
Sinyal masuk
Sinyal keluar

Konverter Daya
Daya masuk Daya keluar

Daya masuk

Sinyal masuk

Efficiency is the key


P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 5

Regulator tegangan
R1 Rv
Vi Io Vo Vi Io

Ro

R2

Ro

Vo

Efficiency is very low No ripples on the input and output sides


P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 6

Switching Regulator
Ii Io
Vi Vo 0 TON Ts

Vi

Vo

Load

Io 0

Ii 0

T Efficiency is very high Vo = ON Vi Ts Ripples on the input and output sides

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

Linear and Switching Power Supplies

Linear

Switching

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

Switching Mode Power Supplies


Advantages: High efficient and small size DC filter capacitor is working at high voltage (Energy stored is high) The reactive component requirements are small. Disadvantages: Control is more complicated EMC problems
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 9

Power Supply Comparison


Power Density Linear Power Supply <0.12 W/cm3 Efficiency <40%

SMPS

6W/cm3

>95%

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

10

Power Electronic Applications in Power Generation


Excitation system Automatic Voltage Regulator Variable Speed Power Generation (Hydro, Wind, Microturbine gas) Power Conditioners for Renewable Power Generation (Fuel cells, solar cells) Energy Storage
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 11

Excitation System in Brushless AC Generator


D1
D3 D5

Rotor

D2

D4

D6

Stator

Exciter

Main generator

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

12

Renewable Energy System


Solar Cells DC/DC DC/DC Fuel Cells Exhaust Fuel Fuel Cells DC/DC Energy Storages

AC/DC

BUS DC

Fuel Cells Modules

Micro Hydro Electric Power

Generatr

DC/AC

Utilitas AC/DC DC/AC AC Loads

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

13

Rote Island Hybrid Power System

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

14

Power Electronic Applications in Power Transmission


High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Static VAR Compensators Series Compensation Phase Shifters Dynamic Braking Flexible AC Transmission System High-Speed Circuit Breakers
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 15

Static VAR Compensator

Improving power factor Reducing voltage drop and losses Increasing maximum power transfer Improving damping factor
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 16

HVDC Transmission System


DC Line

Converter

Converter

Two - terminals dc system

Asynchronous links Suitable for long distance transmission and underground cable transmission Improving damping factor
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 17

Power Electronic Applications in Power Distribution


Static VAR Compensators Power Conditioners Active Filters Unified Power Conditioners Dynamic Voltage Restorers High-Speed Circuit Breakers Light High-Voltage Direct-Current Distribution Power conditioners for distributed power generation
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 18

Active Filter
is

AC source

Ls
if

ih

es

Active filter

Harmonic source

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

19

Power Electronic Applications in Transportation Industries


High-Speed Trains Electric vehicles Elevators Airplanes Ships Unmanned vehicles
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 20

PWM Inverter for Electric Traction


Pantograph

PWM Inverter

Traction Motors

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

21

Shinkansen

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

22

Electric Traction

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

23

Electric Traction

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

24

Diesel Electric Locomotive

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

25

Toyota Prius

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

26

Ford Escape

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

27

Toyota Siena

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

28

Honda Accord

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

29

Hybrid Vehicles
parallel

Split

Series

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

30

Power Electronic Applications in Industries


Rolling mills Variable speed pump systems Cement kilns Rolling ball mills Robotics Electrolysis
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 31

Variable Speed Drive Applications


FLOW REFERENCE SET-POINT CONTROLLER MOTORIZED VALVE STARTER

MOTOR

SENSOR

Fixed Speed

PUMP

FLOW REFERENCE SET-POINT CONTROLLER

VSD
CONTROLLER

SENSOR MOTOR PUMP

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

32

Variable Speed Drives


Smoothing inductor

AC source
Smoothing capacitor

AC Motor

3 vout

Controlled rectifier

Square- wave inverter

AC source
Smoothing capacitor
vout

AC Motor

Uncontroll ed rectifier

PWM inverter

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

33

Variable Speed Pumping System


80

Pipe characteristic 2
Pipe characteri stic 1

70 60

VALVE OPERATION WITH STANDARD EFFICIENTMOTOR

H2 H1
Pump characteri stic 1
INPUT KW

50 40 30 20 10 ADJUSTABLE SPEED OPERATION WITH ENERGY EFFICIENT MOTOR

H3
Q2

Pump characteristic 2
Q1 Flow

0 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700

FLOW (GPM)

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

34

Power Electronic Applications in Home Appliances


Microwave heating Air conditioners Refrigerators Toasters Cookers Vacuum cleaners Wash machines
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 35

Power Electronic Applications in Information Industries


DC power supplies Distributed power supplies Power conditioners Uninterruptible power supplies Battery chargers Voltage Regulator Modules
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 36

Is power electronics new technology?


Power electronics have been developed since the beginning of 20th century when mercury arc and vacuum tubes technology was emerged. Power conversion has been known for a long time by using a combination of electrical machinery. Power electronics development has grown very fast since the introduction of thyristor or SCR (Semiconductor controlled rectifier) in nineteen fifties.
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 37

Interdiciplinary nature of power electronics


Control
Signal processing

Circuit theory
Electronic s

theory

Solid - state physics

Power Electronic s

Power systems

Computer

Electric machines
Electromag netics

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

38

Current Challenges
Voltage regulator modules for microprocessors Embedded inverter for motor drives Intelligent power ICs Flexible AC power transmission systems Custom power distribution system Unified power conditioners Renewable energy power generation system
P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya 39

Microprocessor operating voltages

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

40

Laptop Power Supply System

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

41

Matriks saklar

S1 Vi u Load

S3 v

S2

S4

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

42

Penyearah tak terkendali

Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3 v
S1
S2

S2

S4

S3

S4

v uv

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

43

Penyearah terkendali

Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3 v

S1
S2

S3

S4

S2

S4

v uv

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

44

AC regulator
Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3 v

S1
S2

S3

S4

S2

S4

v uv

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

45

Phase-Controlled AC-AC Cycloconverter


S1 S3

ei

Beban

vo

S2

S4

ei

S1 & S 4 t

S 2& S3

Fundamenta component l

vo

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

46

Konverter DC-ke-DC
Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3 v

S1
S2

S3

S2

S4
S4

v uv

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

47

Inverter PWM
Vi

S1 Vi u Load

S3 v

S1
S2

S3

S4

S2

S4
v uv

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

48

Understanding Power Electronic Circuits


Consider all power semiconductor switches as ideal switches Ideal switches have no voltage drop, no leakage current, and transition times are zero. Practical considerations are given in detailed design. Background on signal electronics is useful to understand power electronics.

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

49

The End

P. A. Dahono -- Elektronika Daya

50