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Exponential

and

Logarithmic Functions
By: Hendrik Pical to Revition Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Last Updated: January 30, 2011

By Hendry P 2011

With your Graphing Calculator graph each of the following y = 2x y = 3x x y=5 y = 1x


Determine what is happening when the base is changing in each of these graphs.
By Hendry P 2011

y = 3x y = 2x

x -2 -1 0 1 2 3

y = 2x y = 3x 1/4 1 2 4 8 1/9 1/3 1 3 9 27

By Hendry P 2011

y=

5x

y = 3x y = 2x

x -2 -1 0 1 2 3

y = 5x y = 1x 1/25 1/5 1 5 25 125 1 1 1 1 1 1


y = 1x

By Hendry P 2011

y= y = 10x

5x

Determine where each of the following would lie? y=10x y=4x y = (3/2)x

y = 3x y = 4x y = 2x y = (3/2)x

y = 1x

By Hendry P 2011

By Hendry P 2011

f(x) = 2x

By Hendry P 2011

f(x) = 2x-3

By Hendry P 2011

f(x) = 2x+2 3

By Hendry P 2011

f(x) = -(2)x-4 2

By Hendry P 2011

Compound Interest
You deposit $5000 into an account that pays 4.5 % interest. What is the balance of the account after 10 years if the interest is compounded quarterly?

A ! P  1
P = Principal = $5000 r = rate of interest = .045

r nt n

A = Final amount = unknown

n = number of times compounded per year = 4 t = number of years compounded = 10


By Hendry P 2011

Compound Interest
You deposit $5000 into an account that pays 4.5 % interest. What is the balance of the account after 10 years if the interest is compounded quarterly?

A ! P  1
A = unknown P = $5000 r = .045 n=4 t = 10
By Hendry P 2011

r nt n 0.045 410 4

A ! 5000  1 A ! $ 7821.88

Compound Interest
You deposit $5000 into an account that pays 4.5 % interest. What is the balance of the account after 10 years if the interest is compounded quarterly? weekly? r nt n 0.045 5210 A = unknown 52

A ! P  1

A ! 5000  1

P = $5000 r = .045 n=4 52 t = 10

A ! $ 7840.04

By Hendry P 2011

By Hendry P 2011

With your Graphing Calculator graph each of the following y = (1/2)x y = (1/3)x y = 1x
Determine what is happening when the base is changing in each of these graphs.
By Hendry P 2011

y = (1/3)x y = ()x

y = 5x y = 3x y = 2x

x -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

y = ()x y = (1/3)x

4 2 1 1/8

9 3 1 1/3 1/9 1/27


y = 1x

By Hendry P 2011

f(x) = 2-x = (1/2)x

By Hendry P 2011
Jeff Bivin -- LZHS

f(x) = ()x-3 - 2 = (2)-x+3 - 2

By Hendry P 2011

By Hendry P 2011

A new Number
g

e!

1 n!

1 1 1 1 1 1 e !       0! 1! 2! 3! 4! 5!
1 1 1 1 1 1 e!       1 1 2 6 24 120
We could use a spreadsheet to determine an approximation.
By Hendry P 2011

A new Number
g

e!

1 n!

} 2.718

By Hendry P 2011

y = 3x

Graph y = ex
x -2 -1 0 1 2 3 y = 2x y = 3x 1 2 4 8 1/9 1/3 1 3 9 27

y = ex

y = 2x

By Hendry P 2011

Graph: y = ex+2
x+2=0 x = -2

y = ex+2

y = ex

By Hendry P 2011

Compound Interest-continuously
You deposit $5000 into an account that pays 4.5 % interest. What is the balance of the account after 10 years if the interest is compounded continuously?

A ! Pe
P = Principal = $5000 r = rate of interest = .045

rt

A = Final amount = unknown

t = number of years compounded = 10


By Hendry P 2011

Compound Interest-continuously
You deposit $5000 into an account that pays 4.5 % interest. What is the balance of the account after 10 years if the interest is compounded continuously?

A = unknown P = $5000 r = .045 t = 10


By Hendry P 2011

A ! Pe 0.04510 A ! 5000e A ! $ 7841.56

rt

Bacteria Growth
You have 150 bacteria in a dish. It the constant of growth is 1.567 when t is measured in hours. How many bacteria will you have in 7 hours?

y ! ne

kt

y = Final amount = unknown n = initial amount = 150 k = constant of growth = 1.567 t = time = 7
By Hendry P 2011

Bacteria Growth
You have 150 bacteria in a dish. It the constant of growth is 1.567 when t is measured in hours. How many bacteria will you have in 7 hours?

y = unknown n = 150 k = 1.567 t=7


By Hendry P 2011

y ! ne 1.567 y7 y ! 150e y ! 8,706,977.678 8,706,977.678 bacteria

kt

By Hendry P 2011

y=
x -2 -1 0 1 2 3

x 2
y 1/4 1 2 4 8

x=
x 1/4 1 2 4 8

y 2
y -2 -1 0 1 2 3

By Hendry P 2011

y = 2x

x = 2y
How do we solve this exponential equation for the variable y?

By Hendry P 2011

LOGARITHMS
exponential logarithmic

b !A

log b ( A) ! m
b>0 A>0

By Hendry P 2011

exponential

logarithmic

b !A 3 ! 9 5 ! 125 2 !
3

log b ( A) ! m log 3 (9) ! 2 log 5 (125) ! 3 log 2 1 !  3 8 log 1 (32) !  5


2

1 8

1 5 2

! 32
y

x!2 By Hendry P 2011

log 2 ( x) ! y

Evaluate
log 5 (25) ! u

5 ! 25 5 !5
u 2

u!2
log 5 (25) ! 2
By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
log 3 (81) ! u

3 ! 81 3 !3
u 4

u!4
log 3 (81) ! 4
By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
1 log 2 32 ! u

2 !
u
u

1 32
1 25

2 !
u

2 !2 u
By Hendry P 2011

5

5

1 log 2 32 !  5

Evaluate
log 7 (7) ! u

7 !7
u

7 !7

u !1
log 7 (7) ! 1
By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
log 8 (1) ! u

8 !1 8 !8
u 0

u!0
log 8 (1) ! 0
By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
log n (n ) ! u
5

n !n

u!5
log n (n ) ! 5
5

By Hendry P 2011

y=
x -2 -1 0 1 2 3

x 2
y 1/4 1 2 4 8

y=log2x
x 1/4 1 2 4 8 y -2 -1 0 1 2 3

x=

y 2

By Hendry P 2011

x = 2y
x 1/4 1 2 4 8
y = log2x

-2 -1 0 1 2 3

y = log2x y = log3x y = log5x

By Hendry P 2011

x = ()y
x 1/4 1 2 4 8
y = logx

2 1 0 -1 -2 -3
y = logx

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log2(x+5) = 4 24 = x + 5 16 = x + 5 11 = x

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
logx(32) = 5 x5 = 32 x5 = 25 x = 2

By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
log3(25) = u 3u = 25 3u = 52 ??????

By Hendry P 2011

By Hendry P 2011

Change of Base Formula

log b x log a x ! log b a log10 x log a x ! log10 a


By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
log3(25)
log10 25 ! log10 3

= 2.930

By Hendry P 2011

Evaluate
log10 568 log5(568) ! log 5 10

= 3.941

By Hendry P 2011

Properties of Logarithms
Product Property Quotient Property Power Property Property of Equality

By Hendry P 2011

Product Property

a a ! a
multiplication

m n

addition

log b (m n) ! log b (m)  log b (n)


multiplication
By Hendry P 2011

addition

Product Property
log 2 (16 4) ! log 2 (16)  log 2 (4) log 2 (2 2 ) ! log 2 (2 )  log 2 (2 ) log 2 (2 ) ! 6
By Hendry P 2011

 6

Quotient Property

division

a mn !a n a

subtraction

log ( ) ! log b (m)  log b (n)


division
By Hendry P 2011

m b n

subtraction

Quotient Property
log

! log 2 (32)  log 2 (4) 5 2 log 2 8 ! log 2 (2 )  log 2 (2 )


32 2 4 3

log 2 (2 ) ! 3
By Hendry P 2011

 3

Power Property

a ! a
m n

mn

p logb(m p ) logb(mp ) = plogb(m)


By Hendry P 2011

Power Property
log 2 2

! 7 log (2)
7 2

7 ! 7!

7 1 7

By Hendry P 2011

Property of Equality

if

log b ( A) ! log b (C )

then

A!C

By Hendry P 2011

Expand
log 5 ( x y )
product property power property
3 2

log 5 ( x )  log 5 ( y ) 3 log 5 ( x)  2 log 5 ( y )

By Hendry P 2011

Expand
log 5
quotient property product property power property


x5 y 3 z4 5 3 4 5 3 4

log 5 ( x y )  log 5 ( z ) log 5 ( x )  log 5 ( y )  log 5 ( z )

5 log 5 ( x)  3 log5 ( y )  4 log 5 ( z )

By Hendry P 2011

Expand
log
quotient property product property distributive property power property
By Hendry P 2011

x7 5 y2 z5


7 2 5 7

log 5 ( x )  log 5 ( y z ) log 5 ( x )  log 5 ( y )  log 5 ( z ) log 5 ( x )  log 5 ( y )  log 5 ( z )


7 2 5

7 log 5 ( x)  2 log5 ( y )  5 log5 ( z )

Condense
5 log 3 x  6 log 3 y  2 log 3 z
power property product property quotient property

log 3 x  log 3 y  log 3 z


5 6

log 3 y x
5

 log

log 3


x5 y 6 z2

By Hendry P 2011

Condense
1 2

log10 x  2 log10 y  4 log10 z log10 x  log10 y  log10 z


2
1 2

Power property group / factor product property

4 4

log10 x  log10 y  log10 z


2

1 2


1 2

log10 x  log10 y z log10 y 2 z 4


1 x2

2 4


x y2z4

quotient property
By Hendry P 2011

! log10

Condense
3 log e x  2 log e y  5 log e z  4 log e w
Power property re-organize group

log e x  log e y  log e z  log e w log e x  log e z  log e y  log e w


3 5 2

log

x  log e z
e

product property quotient property


By Hendry P 2011

 log y  log log z  log y w x


5 2 e 3 5 2 4 e

log

x3 z5 e y 2 w4

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 3 3 x  9 ! log 3 x  3
Property of Equality

3x  9 ! x  3
2 x ! 12 x ! 6

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 3 3 x  9 ! log 3 x  3

check

x ! 6

log 3 3(6)  9 ! log 3 6  3 log 3  9 ! log 3 6  3 18 log 3 9 ! log 3 9


checks!
By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 3 3 x  9 ! log 3 x  3

3x  9 ! x  3
2 x ! 12 x ! 6

_6 a
By Hendry P 2011

Solve for n
log 4 7  log 4 n  2 ! log 4 6n
Condense left side

log 4 7(n  2) ! log 4 6n 7 n  14 ! 6n n ! 14

Property of Equality

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for n
log 4 7  log 4 n  2 ! log 4 6n

check

n ! 14

log 4 7  log 4  2 ! log 4 6(14) 14


log 4 7  log 4 ! log 4 84 12 log 4 7(12) ! log 4 84 log 4 84 ! log 4 84
checks!
By Hendry P 2011

Solve for n
log 4 7  log 4 n  2 ! log 4 6n

log 4 7(n  2) ! log 4 6n 7 n  14 ! 6n n ! 14

_14 a
By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 2 x  1  log 2 x  1 ! 3
Condense left side Convert to exponential form

log 2 ( x  1)( x  1) ! 3
2 ! ( x  1)( x  1)
3

8 ! x  1 9 ! x s3 ! x
2

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 2 x  1  log 2 x  1 ! 3

check x ! 3 log2 3 1  log2 3 1 ! 3 log2 4  log2 2 ! 3


2 1 ! 3 3 !3 checks!
By Hendry P 2011

c eck x  3 log2  3 1  log2  3 1 ! log2  2  log2  4 !


fails The argument must be positive

3 3

Solve for x
log 2 x  1  log 2 x  1 ! 3

log 2 ( x  1)( x  1) ! 3
2 ! ( x  1)( x  1)
3

8 ! x  1 9 ! x s3 ! x
By Hendry P 2011

_3 a

Solve for x
log 3  x  3 ! 2 x
2

Convert to exponential form

3 ! x x3 2 9 ! x x3 0 ! x x6 0 ! ( x  3)( x  2) x !  3 or x ! 2


2

By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 3  x  3 ! 2 x
2

check x

3

check x ! 2
! 2 log 3 (2) 2  2  3

log 3 (3) 2  (3)  3

! 2

log 3 9  3  3 ! 2 log 3 9 ! 2 2 ! 2
checks!
By Hendry P 2011

log 3 4  2  3 ! 2 log 3 9 ! 2 2 ! 2
checks!

Solve for x
log 3  x  3 ! 2 x
2

3 ! x x3 2 9 ! x x3 0 ! x x6 0 ! ( x  3)( x  2) x !  3 or x ! 2


2

_
By Hendry P 2011

, 2a

Solve for x 3 x 7 log 5 ! log 19


(3 x  7) log(5) ! log(19)

3x log(5)  7 log(5) ! log(19) 3 x log(5) ! log(19)  7 log(5) 3 log(5) 3 log(5) log(19 )  7 log( 5) x! 3 log( 5 )
By Hendry P 2011

x ! 2.943

Solve for x
log 5

! log 7
4x 2

(4 x) log(5) ! (2) log(7) 4 log(5) 4 log(5)

x!

2 log( 7 ) 4 log( 5 )

x ! 0.605
By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x
log 11

2 x 1

! log 9
5x

(2 x  1) log(11) ! (5 x) log(9)

2 x log(11)  1 log(11) ! 5 x log(9)


2 x log(11)  5 x log(9) !  log(11) x 2 log(11)  5 log(9) !  log(11)
 log(11) 2 log(11)  5 log( 9 )

x!
By Hendry P 2011

x ! 0.387

Solve for x
log 3

x2

! log 5
x 1

( x  2) log(3) ! ( x  1) log(5)

x log(3)  2 log(3) ! x log(5)  1log(5)


x log(3)  x log(5) ! log(5)  2 log(3) x log(3)  log(5) ! log(5)  2 log(3) log( 5 )  2 log( 3) x ! log(3)  log(5)
By Hendry P 2011

x ! 1.151

Solve for x
log 7

3x2

! log 3
9 x 8

(3 x  2) log(7) ! (9 x  8) log(3)

3x log(7)  2 log(7) ! 9 x log(3)  8 log(3)


3 x log(7)  9 x log(3) ! 2 log(7)  8 log(3) x 3 log(7)  9 log(3) ! 2 log(7)  8 log(3) 2 log( 7 )  8 log( 3) x ! 3log( 7 )  9 log(3)
By Hendry P 2011

x ! 1.209

Solve for x
ln 15 ! ln e

3 x2

ln(15) ! (3 x  2) ln(e) 1

ln(15) ! 3 x  2
ln(15)  2 ! 3 x
ln(15 )  2 3

! x

1.569 ! x
By Hendry P 2011

Solve for x 5 x6 7 ! 3e


ln
7 3

! ln e

5 x6

1 ln( 7 ) ! (5 x  6) ln(e) 3
ln( 7 ) ! 5 x  6 3

ln( 7 )  6 ! 5 x 3
ln( 7 )  6 3 5
By Hendry P 2011

! x

 1.031 ! x

Solve for x 3 x 1 5 ! 7 2
log
5 7

! log 2

3 x 1

log( 5 ) ! (3 x  1) log(2) 7
5 log( 7 ) ! 3 x log(2)  1 log(2)

5 log( 7 )  log(2) ! 3 x log(2)


5 log( 7 )  log( 2 )

3 log( 2 )
By Hendry P 2011

! x

0.172 ! x