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Cell Structure and Function

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INDICATORS
Explain chemical component of cell Describe structure of a plant cell and an animal cell from observation Show part of cell based on literature picture/interactive CD/internet Explain structure and function part of cell Make Model of cell

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The Cellular Level of Organization


Living things are constructed of cells. Cell structure is diverse but all cells share common characteristics.

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Definition of Cell

A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.

The cell theory states:


1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms. 3. All cells come only from other cells.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

1632-1723 Developed microscopes for observing living organisms 1674 discovered live protist cells 1677 discovered spermatozoa 1682 discovered striated muscle fibers

http://www.ndpteachers.org/perit/Leeuwenhoek.JPG

http://www.molecularexpressions.com/primer/images/introduction/leeuwenhoek.jpg

http://students.ou.edu/J/Renee.E.Jones-1/Van%20leeuwenhoek%20Scope.jpg http://cell.sio2.be/introduction/images/microleeuw.jpg

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Physics/Optics/OpticalInst ruments/Microscope/GlassSphere/usph_01.gif

Mouth animalcules (bacteria) 1684

http://en.citizendium.org/images/thumb/9/94/Leeuwenhoek.jpg/300px-Leeuwenhoek.jpg

Cell Theory 1839

Theodor Schwann Prussian Zoologist 1810-1882

Matthias Schleiden German Botanist 1804-1881

1. All living organisms consist of one or more cells. 2. Some organisms are unicellular, so cells are the fundamental unit of life. 3. New cells come from pre-existing cells by cell division. We can addnow: 4. Cells must show all the properties of life. 5. All cells are basically similar in chemical and structural composition.

http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/scitech/HSmatthi.jpg

http://home.tiscalinet.ch/biografien/images/schwann.jpg

Cells are small so they can exchange materials with their surroundings.

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Examples of Cells
Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem

Bacteria

Red Blood Cell

Nerve Cell

Two Types of Cells


Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic
Do not have structures surrounded by membranes Few internal structures One-celled organisms, Bacteria

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html

Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus that controls the workings of the cell. All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane made of phospholipids and proteins.
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The plasma membrane regulates what enters and exits the cell. Inside the plasma membrane, the nucleus is surrounded by cytoplasm. Plant cells have a cell wall in addition to the plasma membrane.

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Animal and plant cells have organelles. Organelles compartmentalize functions within the cell. The organelles of animal and plant cells are similar to each other except that centrioles are present only in animal cells, and chloroplasts are present only in plant cells.

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Eukaryotic
Contain organelles surrounded by membranes Most living organisms

Plant

Animal

http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html

Typical Animal Cell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif

Typical Plant Cell

http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif

Cell Parts
Organelles

Surrounding the Cell

Cell Membrane
Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell Double layer

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Cell Wall
Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria Supports & protects cells

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Inside the Cell

Nucleus
Directs cell activities Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA

Nuclear Membrane
Surrounds nucleus Made of two layers Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Chromosomes
In nucleus Made of DNA Contain instructions for traits & characteristics

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Nucleolus
Inside nucleus Contains RNA to build proteins

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Cytoplasm
Gel-like mixture Surrounded by cell membrane Contains hereditary material

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Moves materials around in cell Smooth type: lacks ribosomes Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Ribosomes
Each cell contains thousands Make proteins Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cell

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Mitochondria
Produces energy through chemical reactions breaking down fats & carbohydrates Controls level of water and other materials in cell Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Golgi Bodies
Protein 'packaging plant' Move materials within the cell Move materials out of the cell

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Lysosome
Digestive 'plant' for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Vacuoles
Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal Contains water solution Help plants maintain shape

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Chloroplast
Usually found in plant cells Contains green chlorophyll Where photosynthesis takes place

http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html

Indicators
Compare structure of a plant cell and an animal cell Explain organells of a plant cell and an animal cell Explain function of each organells in a plant cell and an animal cell Model cell , division and function of an animal cell
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Plant cell anatomy

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Animal cell anatomy

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Nucleus and nuclear envelope

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Structure of the Nucleus


Chromatin: DNA and proteins Nucleolus: Chromatin and ribosomal subunits Nuclear envelope: Double membrane with pores Nucleoplasm: semifluid medium inside the nucleus.

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Animal cell anatomy

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Ribosomes
Protein synthesis occurs at tiny organelles called ribosomes. Ribosomes are composed of a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomes can be found alone in the cytoplasm, in groups called polyribosomes, or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
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Animal cell anatomy

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The Endomembrane System


The endomembrane system consists of:

Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vesicles

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The endoplasmic reticulum


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a system of membranous channels and saccules. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes and is the site of protein synthesis and processing. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes and is the site of synthesis of phospholipids and the packaging of proteins into vesicles, among other functions.
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The endoplasmic reticulum

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Animal cell anatomy

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The Golgi apparatus


The Golgi apparatus consists of a stack of curved saccules. The Golgi apparatus receives protein and also lipid-filled vesicles from the ER, packages, processes, and distributes them within the cell. This organelle may also be involved in secretion.
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The Golgi apparatus

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Lysosomes and vacuoles


Lysosomes are vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes and are involved in intracellular digestion. Vacuoles (large) and vesicles (small) are membranous sacs in the cell that store substances.
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Peroxisomes
Peroxisomes are vesicles than contain enzymes. The enzymes in these organelles use up oxygen and produce hydrogen peroxide. Peroxisomes are abundant in the liver where they produce bile salts and cholesterol and break down fats.
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Animal cell anatomy

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Energy-Related Organelles
The two energy-related organelles of eukaryotes are chloroplasts and mitochondria.

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Plant cell anatomy

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Chloroplast structure

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Chloroplasts
A chloroplast is bounded by two membranes enclosing a fluid-filled stroma that contains enzymes. Membranes inside the stroma are organized into thylakoids that house chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy and carbohydrates are made in the stroma.
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Plant cell anatomy

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Mitochondria
Mitochondria are found in plant and animal cells. Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane surrounding fluid-filled matrix.

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Mitochondrion structure

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The inner membranes of mitochondria are cristae. The matrix contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates and the cristae house protein complexes that produce ATP.

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http://www.itg.uiuc.edu/exhibits/gallery/pages/

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The Cytoskeleton
The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is a network of filaments and tubules that extends from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeleton contains three types of elements responsible for cell shape, movement within the cell, and movement of the cell: Actin filaments Microtubules Intermediate filaments
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Actin filaments

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Actin filaments occur in bundles or mesh-like networks. Actin filaments play a structural role and interact with motor molecules, such as myosin.

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Microtubule structure

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Microtubules small,hollow cylinders. Microtubules 1) help maintain the shape of the cell 2) act as tracks along which organelles and chromosomes can move.
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Structure of intermediate filaments

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Intermediate filaments -ropelike assemblies of fibrous polypeptides 1) support the plasma membrane 2) support the nuclear envelope.

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Centrioles
Centrioles are short cylinders with a 9 + 0 pattern of microtubule triplets. May be involved in: 1) microtubule formation and disassembly 2) organization of cilia and flagella.

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Centriole structure

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Cilia and flagella


Cilia and flagella - 9 + 2 pattern of microtubules Involved in movement (cell, eggs, debris) Each cilium and flagellum has a basal body at its base.

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Structure of a flagellum or cilium

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Prokaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells include the bacteria and archaea. Bacterial cells have these constant features: Outer Boundary: Cell wall Plasma membrane Cytoplasm: Ribosomes Thylakoids (Cyanobacteria) Many enzymes Nucleoid: Chromosome (DNA only)
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Bacterial cells may have plasmids, small accessory rings of DNA.

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Evolution of the eukaryotic cell

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