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What is Multimedia

Multimedia is any combination of text, graphics ,art, sound, animation and video with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, and communicate with the computer. Interactive multimedia - when the user is able to control what and when these elements are delivered Hypermedia when interactive mulltimedia becomes a structure of linked elements through which the learner can navigate.

Multimedia systems include combinations of:


Text and hypertext Audio Graphics Animations Video

Audio
Wav files Midi files net MP3 files

Sampling rate and sampling size

Characteristics of Sound
Amplitude Wavelength (w) Frequency ( ) Timbre

Hearing: [20Hz 20KHz] Speech: [200Hz 8KHz]

Graphics
Pictures, charts, drawings, photos , Icons File formats - the best are JPEG, GIF,PICT, TIFF Remember -Bitmapped vs. Vector Graphics -Compression

Video
Formats - QuickTime, MPEG, wmv, ram, avi Large amount of storage Only some files can be inserted into PPT and play successfully

Image Concepts
An image is a function of intensity values over a 2D plane I(r,s) Sample function at discrete intervals to represent an image in digital form - matrix of intensity values for each color plane - intensity typically represented with 8 bits Sample points are called Pixels

Digital Images
Samples = pixels Quantization = number of bits per pixel Example: if we would sample and quantize standard TV picture (525 lines) by using VGA (Video Graphics Array), video controller creates matrix 640x480pixels, and each pixel is represented by 8 bit integer (256 discrete gray levels)

Animations
Path-based displays the movement on an animated object onto a fixed background in a particular sequence or path. Cel-based creates animation by using a series of still images, each displayed in a frame or cell. Morphing, warping Tweening Compression

Authoring Software System


4 different styles -Stacked Slide Method -Timeline/Stage play method

-Flowchart ( Icon based)


-Decision Table Method

Stacked Slide Method (Card based)


These tools create a multimedia package as a series of cards, pages or slides. Buttons allow us to explore at our own pace, rather than following the order in the stack. Examples include PowerPoint and Hyperstudio.

Timeline Method (Stage Play)


This is often called the actor, stage and script method. Media elements are treated like the cast members in a play that follow a script.

Examples of this are Macromedia Flash and Director

Icon Based Flowchart method


Each media element is represented as an icon with logical flow lines between them An example is Macromedia Authorware

Decision Table Method


This method is where all the rules are decided in advance and the user is let loose on the screen. Decision tables are used where all objects and their behaviours are defined and organised. This suits interactive games e.g Klik and Play

Story Board
A storyboard is used to map out a presentation. It provides a general guide for the layout It will show how various components are linked.

Types of Presentations
There are 4 types of presentation: Linear flows from start to finish Hierarchical -user has choice, but topics can be divided into specific topics Non linear user can move freely thorough the presentation along paths that are not restricted. Composite incorporates parts of all the above methods